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Flashcards in Culture 6 Deck (14):
1

BELIEF SYSTEM

  • Is the way in which a culture collectively constructs a model or framework for how it thinks about something.
  • A religion is a particular kind of belief system.
  • Other examples of general forms of belief systems are ideologies, paradigms and world-views also known by the German word Weltanschauung.
  • In addition to governing almost all aspects of human activity, belief systems have a significant impact on what a culture deems worthy of passing down to following generations as its cultural heritage.
  • This also influences how cultures view the cultural heritage of other cultures.
  • Many people today recognize that there is no one correct belief system or way of thinking. This is known as relativism or conceptual relativism.
  • This contrasts with objectivism and essentialism, both of which posit a reality that is independent of the way in which people conceptualize.
  • A plurality of belief systems is a hallmark of postmodernism.

2

BIAS

  • A realist approach to bias depicts this as consisting of any systematic error that obscures correct conclusions about the subject being studied.
  • Typically, such bias may be caused by the researcher, or by procedures adopted for data gathering, including sampling.
  • The concept makes little sense from a relativist standpoint, though provision of a reflexive account of the research process can help in addressing issues of trust that the concept of bias was intended to resolve.

3

BICULTURALISM

  • The simultaneous identification with two cultures when an individual feels equally at home in both cultures and feels emotional attachment with both cultures.
  • The term started appearing in the 1950s.

4

BIETHNIC

  • Of two ethnic groups: belonging or relating to two different ethnic groups.
  • Usually used in reference to a person.
  • For example: if a person's father is French and mother English, she is biethnic though not biracial.
  • See also biracial.

5

BIG MAN

  • In anthropology the most influential man in a tribe of horticulturalists and pastoralists; a person with power in a community.
  • The big man usually occupies no formal office and has no coercive authority but creates his reputation through skills, wisdom, entrepreneurship and generosity to others.
  • His wealth or his position may not pass to his heirs.

6

BIG-MAN

A form of leadership in tribes where the leader achieves power and influence based on ability.

7

BILATERAL KINSHIP CALCULATION

Is a system in which kinship ties are calculated equally through both sexes: mother and father, sister and brother, daughter and son, and so on.

8

BILINEAL

Descent in which the individual figures kinship through both the father's and mother's descent group.

9

BILINGUAL EDUCATION

  • Teaching a second language by relying heavily on the native language of the speaker.
  • The background theory claims that a strong sense of one's one culture and language is necessary to acquire another language and culture.

10

BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

The study of human biological variation in time and space; includes evolution, genetics, growth and development, and primatology.

11

BIOLOGICAL DETERMINISTS

Are those who argue that human behaviour and social organization are biologically determined and not learnt.

12

BIRACIAL

  • Of two races.
  • Usually used to refer to people whose parents come from two different races, e.g., father is Chinese and mother English.

13

BLACK ENGLISH VERNACULAR (BEV)

  • A rule-governed dialect of American English with roots in southern English.
  • Is spoken by African-American youth and by many adults in their casual, intimate speech-sometimes called "ebonics.".

14

BOOLEAN SEARCHES

  • Searches for material (such as references or segments of coded text) using combinations of keywords linked by operators such as 'and', 'or' or 'not.'
  • Databases (for example, library catalogues) and qualitative analysis software (such as NVIVO) commonly support such searches.