- Systems that exchange goods and services using all-purpose money as a standard measure of relative value.
- Early market systems are characterized by market places or bazaars which are often cyclical, moving among a fixed set of localities, each having its specific market days.
Pertains to societies in which social roles are clearly distinct (i.e., men are supposed to be assertive, tough and focused on material success whereas women are supposed to be more modest, tender and concerned with the quality of life).
- Understands culture to be the product of the material conditions of a given society.
- Religion, law, and even art forms, reflect the power relationships of a given society as they are generated by the material order of that society.
- A society ruled by women.
- There is consensus among modern anthropologists and sociologists that a strictly matriarchal society never existed, but there are examples of matrifocal societies.
- There exist many matriarchal animal societies including bees, elephants, and killer whales.
- The word matriarchy is coined as the opposite of Patriarchy.
- Mother-centered society.
- It often refers to a household with no resident husband-father.
- Line of descent as traced through women on the maternal side of a family.
- In some cultures, membership of a specific group is inherited matrilineally.
- For example one is a Jew if one's mother (rather than one's father) is a Jew. The Nairs of Kerala, India are also matrilineal.
Descent traced exclusively through the female line.
Unilineal descent rule in which people join the mother's group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life.
Residence after marriage in association with the wife's mother's relatives.
- Customary residence with the wife's relatives after marriage, so that children grow up in their mother's community.
- The Nair community in Kerala in South India and the Mosuo of Yunnan and Sichuan in southwestern China are contemporary examples.
MEANS (OR FACTORS) OF PRODUCTION
Land, labor, technology, and capital-major productive resources.
MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
Statistics such as the mean, median or mode which in various ways indicate the central point in a frequency distribution.
Dispute settlement through negotiation assisted by an unbiased third party.
Field of study where anthropologists are concerned with the sociocultural context and implications of disease and illness.
A very large city or a thickly populated region encompassing one or more large cities.