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Flashcards in Culture 7 Deck (15):
1

BOTTOM-UP DEVELOPMENT

Economic and social changes brought about by activities of individuals and social groups in society rather than by the state and its agents.

2

BOURGEOISIE

  • Describes a social class of people who are in the upper or merchant class, whose status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth rather than from aristocratic origin.
  • They are the owners of the means of production (factories, mines, large farms, and other sources of subsistence).

3

BRACKETING

  • Used in semiotics to indicate the suspension of interest (for analytic purposes) in the relationship between signs and their referents.
  • The term is also helpful in understanding the mental attitude required when doing discourse analysis or any analytic approach that treats text as a topic rather than a resource.
  • Instead of considering the claims made in texts about reality outside the text, bracketing forces the analyst to consider the 'reality' the text constructs.

4

BRIDE PRICE

Is the payment made by a man to the family from whom he takes a daughter in marriage.

5

BRIDEPRICE

An economic exchange by the groom's family to compensate the bride's family upon marriage.

6

BUREAUCRACY

Government based on a specialized set of offices usually hierarchically organized.

7

BUSH DOCTRINE

  • Describes various foreign policy principles of United States president George W. Bush.
  • According to this doctrine, the United States had the right to aggressively protect itself from countries that harbor or give aid to terrorist groups, which was used to justify the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq.
  • Further, it contains the controversial policy of preventive war, which held that the United States should depose foreign regimes that represented a potential or perceived threat to the security of the United States, even if that threat was not immediate; a policy of spreading democracy around the world, especially in the Middle East, as a strategy for combating terrorism; and a willingness to pursue U.S. military interests in a unilateral way even without the sanction of allies or international bodies.

8

BYSTANDER EFFECT

The finding that a person is less likely to offer help when in the presence of witnesses than when alone.

9

CALL SYSTEMS

  • Systems of communication among nonhuman primates, composed of a limited number of sounds that vary in intensity and duration.
  • Tied to environmental stimuli.
  • Cultural transmission-A basic feature of language; transmission through learning.

10

CANNIBALISM

  • Consuming human flesh.
  • This is reported to occur in the context of warfare, as part of a funeral rite or, rarely, in cases of extreme stress.

11

CAPITAL

Wealth or resources invested in business, with the intent of producing a profit for the owner of the capital.

12

CAPITALISM

  • Economic or socio-economic system in which production and distribution are designed to accumulate capital and create profit.
  • A characteristic feature of the system is the separation of those who own the means of production and those who work for them.
  • The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels first used the term Kapitalist in 1848.
  • The first use of the word capitalism is by novelist William Thackeray in 1854.

13

CAPITALIST WORLD ECONOMY

  • The single world system, committed to production for sale, with the object of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs.
  • The term was launched by the US historical social scientist, Immanual Wallerstein.

14

CAREER

Used, primarily, by symbolic interactionists and ethnographers to describe a person's progress through a social setting, as where marijuana users progress through various stages in learning how to experience the drug, or mental patients pass through a series of institutional settings.

15

CARGO

From the Spanish verb cargar which means to carry and to be in charge of.