Culture 30 Flashcards Preview

Culture Glossary > Culture 30 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Culture 30 Deck (15):
1

NATIONALITIES

Ethnic groups that have, once had, or wish to have or regain, autonomous political status (their own country).

2

NATION-STATE

  • A symbolic system of institutions claiming sovereignty over a bounded territory.
  • The Oxford English Dictionary defines "nation-state": a sovereign state of which most of the citizens or subjects are united also by factors which define a nation, such as language or common descent.
  • Japan and Iceland could be two examples of near ideal nation-states.

3

NATURAL SELECTION

  • Originally formulated by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace.
  • Refers to the process by which nature selects the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment such as the tropics.

4

NATURALISTIC DISEASE THEORIES

  •  One of the theories of diseases used in anthropology that explain illness in impersonal systemic terms.
  • It includes scientific medicine.

5

NATURALISTS

  • Take the view that the methods of the natural sciences are appropriate to the study of the social and cultural world.
  • This should be distinguished from another meaning of the term naturalism or naturalistic which is sometimes used to refer to the claim of ethnographers to collect naturally occurring data.

6

NATURALIZING

  • Is the process whereby matters which are in fact socially constructed and were once fluid and changeable come to be perceived as a part of the natural order and therefore fixed, inevitable and right.
  • Social researchers often wish to denaturalize phenomena (such as sexual identity for example) by exposing the human processes whereby they are constructed.

7

NATURE-NURTURE

Contrasting the biological verses cultural or environmental basis for behavior.

8

NEGATIVE RECIPROCITY

A mode of exchange in which one party has the goal of getting more than is given up.

9

NEGOTIATION

 The use of direct argument and compromise by the parties to a dispute to arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement.

10

N�GRITUDE

  • Black association and identity.
  • It is an idea developed by dark-skinned intellectuals in Francophone (French-speaking) West Africa and the Caribbean.

11

NEGRO

  • Usually refers to people of Black African ancestry.
  • Originates from Spanish negro meaning black. The term negro is considered offensive nowadays.
  • Modern synonyms in common use: "Black", "Dark-skinned", "African", "African American" in the US.

12

NEOCONSERVATISM

  • Is a political philosophy that emerged in the United States.
  • Its key distinction is in international affairs, where it espoembraces an interventionist approach in order to defend national interests.
  • The term neoconservative was originally used as a criticism against liberals who had "moved to the right".
  • Michael Harrington, a democratic socialist, coined the usage of neoconservative in a 1973 Dissent magazine article concerning welfare policy.

13

NEOLOCAL

Residence in which the married couple's household has no connection with either the husband's or wife's family.

14

NEOLOCALITY

Postmarital residence pattern in which a couple establishes a new place of residence rather than living with or near either set of parents.

15

NEW ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

  •  An economic geography that recognizes the importance of culture as an influence on economic processes and outcomes.
  • This draws attention to the culturalization of the economy in contrast to the economization of culture.