Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (125):
A method of answering questions based upon, observation, evidence and experimentaion
Scientific hypothesis is
An educated guess based upon previous observations which is testable using the scientific method. A hypothesis is also falsified
Scientific theory is
A set of hypotheses supported by all the available scientific evidence; explains natural phenomena; has predictive value
Scientific law is
Description of processes with repeatable, predictable outcomes with no known exceptions
This term should NOT be used in science. It is not possible to prove a theory or law. They can only be supported by the evidence
Most likely, statistically
One event is reason for second even occurring
2 or more unrelated events which occur at roughly the same time
Method for separating coincidence from causation
What is the order for the scientific method?
6) Publish important conclusion
7) Conclusions gathered together may become a theory
William Harvey was
An English physician who was the first to describe accurately how blood was pumped around the body by the heart. Also called the father of cardiovascular medicine
What are the levels of organization?
Organ System Level
6) Organ system
What are the 12 organ systems
1) Integumentary System
2) Skeletal System
3) Muscular System
4) Nervous system
5) Endocrine system
6) Cardiovascular system
7) Lymphatic system
8) Respiratory system
9) Digestive system
10) Urinary system
11) Male reproductive system
12) Female reproductive system
What are the organs in the Integumentary system?
Organ system consisting of; skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands
What does the integumentary system do?
Provides protection, regulates body temperature, site of cutaneous receptors, synthesizes vitamin D, prevents water loss
What are the organs in the skeletal system?
Bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and joints
What does the skeletal system do?
Provides support & protection, site of hemopoiesis (blood cell production), stores calcium & phosphorus, provides sites for muscle attachments
What are the organs for the muscular system?
Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle. There are 4 major groups: muscles of the lower extremity, the trunk muscles, the muscles of the upper extremity and head-and-neck muscles
What does the muscular system do?
Produces body movement, generates heat when muscles contract
What organs make up the nervous system
Brain &spinal cord, principal organs of the nervous system include the eyes, ears, sensory organs of taste and smell and sensory receptors in skin, joints, muscles and other parts of the body
What does the nervous system do?
A regulatory system that controls body movement, responds to sensory stimuli, & helps control all other systems of the body. Also responsible for consciousness, intelligence, memory
What organs make up the endocrine system?
Hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, kidney, testes, ovaries
What does the endocrine system do?
Consists of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones, some of which regulate body & cellular growth, chemical levels in the body, & reproductive functions
What organs make up the cardiovascular system
heart, arteries, veins, arterioles, venules, and capillaries.
What does the cardiovascular system do?
Consists of the heart (a pump), blood, & blood vessels; the heart moves blood through blood vessels in order to distribute hormones, nutrients, & gases, & pick up waste products
What are the organs of the lymphatic system?
Capillaries, vessels, nodes, and ducts that collects and transports lymph, which is a clear to slightly yellowish fluid
What does the lymphatic system do?
Transports & filters lymph (interstitial fluid transported through lymph vessels) & initiates an immune response when necessary
What are the organs of the respiratory system
Nasal cavity, nose, pharynx (throat), larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
What does the respiratory system do?
Responsible for exchange of gases (oxygen & carbon dioxide) between blood & the air in the lungs
What are the organs of the digestive system
Oral cavity (mouth), salivary glands, pharynx (throat), esophagus, liver, stomach, large intestine, small intestine
What does the digestive system do?
Mechanically & chemically digests food materials, absorbs nutrients, & expels waste products
What are the organs of the urinary system?
Kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
What does the urinary system do?
Filters the blood & removes waste products from the blood, concentrates waste products in the form of urine, & expels urine from the body
What are the organs of the male reproductive system?
1) Ductus deferens
2) Prostate gland
5) Seminal vesicle
What does the male reproductive system do?
Produces male sex cells (sperm) & male hormones (e.g. testosterone), transfers sperm to the female
What are the organs for the female reproductive system?
4) Uterine tube
6) External genitalia (clitoris, labia)
What does the female reproductive system do?
Produces female sex cells (oocytes) & female hormones (e.g. estrogen, & progesterone), receives sperm from male, site of fertilization of oocyte, site of growth & development of embryo & fetus
What is the difference between organ and organ system?
An organ is a group of tissues that form a part of an organ system, (i.e. esophagus, stomach, intestines) An organ system is a group of organs with a common purpose. (for example the digestive system has the esophagus, stomach, intestines, and so on)
What is cranial
Toward the head
Study of cells
Detect & react to stimuli
Inguinal region is
Toward the tail
Structural change in the body
Vertebral cavity is
Contains spinal cord
Study of tissues
Systemic anatomy is
Study of organs of one system
Cutting a midsagittal section through the body separates the
Right and left halves of the body
Examination of superficial anatomic markings & internal body structures as they relate to the covering skin is called
Which region corresponds to the forearm?
The state of maintaining a constant internal environment is called
The ____ level of organization is composed of two or more tissue types that work together to perform a common function
Which body cavity is located inferior to the diaphragm & superior to a horizontal line drawn between the superior edges of the hip bones?
The term used when referring to a body structure that is below, or at a lower level than, another structure is
The ____ region is the "front" of the knee.
The sub discipline of anatomy that examines structures not readily seen by the unaided eye is
What properties are common to all living things?
3) Growth & development
Describe the body in the anatomic position. Why is the anatomic position used?
An individual stands upright with the feet parallel & flat on the floor. The head is level, the eyes look forward. The arms are at either side of the body with the palms facing forward & the thumbs pointing away from the body. By visualizing the body in anatomic position, all observers have a common point of reference when describing & discussing its regions
Describe the difference between the directional terms superior & inferior
Superior=closer to the head
Inferior=closer to the feet
List the anatomic term that describes each of the following body regions: forearm, wrist, chest, armpit, thigh, and foot
What are the two body cavities within the posterior aspect, & what does each cavity contain?
Cranial cavity (houses the brain) & Vertebral canal (contains the spinal cord)
Describe the structure & function of serous membranes in the body
Composed of 2 layers: Parietal layer (lines internal surface of the body wall) & visceral layer (Covers external surface of organs w/in the cavity). Serous fluid's lubricant properties reduce friction & help organs move smoothly against both one another & the body wall
The prenatal period is broken down into shorter periods which are
1) The pre-embryonic period
2) The embryonic period
3) The fetal period
The pre-embryonic period is?
First 2 weeks of development when the single cell produced by fertilization (zygote) becomes a blastocyst. This period ends when the blastocyst implants in the lining of the uterus
The embryonic period is?
The 3rd-8th week of development. Active time during which versions of the major organ systems appear in the body, which is now called an embryo
The fetal period is
Remaining 30 weeks of development when the organism is called a fetus. The fetus continues to grow, & its organs increase in complexity
The developmental processes that occur in the pre-embryonic & embryonic periods
The zygote divides by mitosis to form a multicellular structure called a blastocyst
The blastocyst cells form three primary germ layers, which are the basic cellular structures from which all body tissues develop
The three primary germ layers arrange themselves in ways that give rise to all organs in the body
Following birth, an individual spends a great portion of his or her life undergoing maturation. During this stage what happens?
The body grows & develops, & the sex organs become mature. The sex organs then begin to produce sex cells, or gametes through a process called gametogenesis
Hereditary information is carried on?
Human somatic cells contain how many chromosomes?
23 pairs of chromosomes: 22 pairs of autosomes & one pair of sex chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes
Genetic information for most human characteristics, such as eye color, hair, height, & skin pigmentation
A pair of similar autosomes are called?
What determines whether an individual is female or male?
The pair of sex chromosomes; female will have two X chromosomes & males have one X & one Y chromosome
How many chromosomes come from your mother & father?
A cell is said to be a diploid if?
It contains 23 pairs of chromosomes
Sex cells (either a secondary oocyte or sperm) are?
Haploid because they contain 23 chromosomes ONLY
The process of gametogenesis begins with?
Cell division called meiosis
Sex cells produced in females are?
Sex cells produced in males are?
A type of sex cell division that starts off with a diploid parent cell & produces haploid daughter cells
The process of oocyte development is
The parent cells, or stem cells, that produce oocytes. They reside in the ovaries
Formation of three primary germ layers
Neural tube is
Forms the brain & spinal cord
Solid ball of cells during cleavage
Structure that implants into the uterus
A zygote is
Single cell produced by fertiliation
Fertilization of the secondary oocyte normally occurs in the?
The beginning of brain & spinal cord formation is termed?
Describe the formation of the primary germ layers
Begins with formation of the primitive streak. Cells detach from the epiblast layer & migrate through the primitive streak between the epiblast & hypoblast layers, this is known as invagination. The layer of cells that forms between these two layers becomes the primary germ layer known as mesoderm. Other migrating cells eventually displace the hypoblast & form the endoderm. Cells remaining in the epiblast then form the ectoderm.
What is the source of the three primary germ layers?
The epiblast, through the process of gastrulation, is the source of the three primary germ layers, from which all body tissues & organs eventually derive
Describe the difference between the embryonic period & the fetal period
Embryonic: 3rd-8th week of development. Active time when versions of major organ systems appear in the body. Now called an embryo.
Fetal: Remaining 30 weeks of development. Organism now called fetus. Fetus continues to grow, & its organs increase in complexity
What do Ribosomes do?
Responsible for synthesizing proteins
What are lysosomes?
Organelles housing digestive enzymes
Peripheral proteins are
NOT embedded in phospholipid bilayer
The Golgi apparatus is
An organelle that sorts & packages molecules
Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane
Control center; stores genetic information
When a cell begins to divide, its chromatin forms?
Facilitated diffusion differs from active transport in that facilitated diffusion?
______ increase the outer surface area of the plasma membrane to increase absorption
The major functions of the Golgi apparatus are?
Packaging, sorting, & modification of new molecules
Interphase of the cell cycle consists of the following parts
G1, S, G2
The organelle that provides most of the ATP needed by all cells is
During which phase of mitosis do the sister chromatids begin to move apart from each other at the middle of the cell?
Describe the three main regions common to all cells,
1) Plasma membrane
What is plasma membrane
Sometimes called the cell membrane, forms the outer, limiting barrier separating the internal contents of the cell from the external environment
Composition of plasma membrane
Phospholipid bilayer containing cholesterol & proteins & some carbohydrates
They cytoplasm is
Place of many metabolic processes of the cell; stores nutrients & dissolved solutes
composition of cytoplasm
Contains cytosol, a viscous fluid, & inclusions & organelles
Composition of nucleus
Surrounded by double membrane nuclear envelope; contains nucleolus & chromatin
Fertilization usually take place in?
The widest part of the uterine tube, called the ampulla
Do eggs & sperm arise by mitosis or meiosis? Why?
Meiosis because it combines different genes from both parents.
What are "embryonic" stem cells and why are they important and controversial?
An embryonic stem cell is a sort of "blank" cell, one that can be programmed to grow into any other type of cell the body needs. When a fetus initially forms, it is merely a bundle of these stem cells, and over the weeks of development they differentiate into specialized cells to form muscles, the nervous system, the circulatory system an all other tissues.
They are controversial because the fact that these cells are taken from developing embryos has led some to argue that it involves the destruction of human life and should be outlawed.
What is the chromosome number for gametes?
*In females the sex cell (secondary oocyte) will have 22 autosomes and one X chromosome
*In males the sex cell (sperm) will first divide by mitosis to make an exact copy (primary spermatocyte). The primary spermatocyte undergo meiosis & produce spermatids. Spermatids contain 23 chromosomes only.
*from a single spermatocyte, four new sperm are formed. Two of the sperm have 22 autosomes and one X chromosome, and two have 22 autosomes and one Y chromosome
Ectoderm gives rise to
1) Epidermis of skin & epidermal derivatives (hair, nails, sweat glands, mammary glands)
2) Nervous tissue & sense organs
3) Pituitary gland
4) Adrenal medulla
5) Enamel of teeth
6) Lens of eye
Mesoderm gives rise to
1) Dermis of skin
2) Epithelial lining of blood vessels, lymph vessels, body cavities, joint cavities
3) Muscle tissue
4) Connective tissue ( including connective tissue proper, bone, cartilage, blood)
5) Adrenal cortex
7) Kidneys & ureters
8) Internal reproductive organs
Endoderm gives rise to
1) Epithelial lining of respiratory tract, GI tract, tympanic cavity, auditory tube, urinary bladder, & urethra
2) Liver (most of)
6) Thyroid gland
7) Parathyroid gland
8) Palatine tonsils (portion of)
The endoderm is the
* Innermost layer.
* Responsible for the development of the lining of the stomach and intestines, mucous membranes and other internal organs and linings
The mesoderm is the
Center layer wedged between the ectoderm and endoderm.
* Responsible for the development of mesenchyme.
* Mesenchyme is responsible for the development and growth of muscles, bones, blood and other tissues