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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (125):
1

Science is

A method of answering questions based upon, observation, evidence and experimentaion

2

Scientific hypothesis is

An educated guess based upon previous observations which is testable using the scientific method. A hypothesis is also falsified

3

Scientific theory is

A set of hypotheses supported by all the available scientific evidence; explains natural phenomena; has predictive value

4

Scientific law is

Description of processes with repeatable, predictable outcomes with no known exceptions

5

Proof is

This term should NOT be used in science. It is not possible to prove a theory or law. They can only be supported by the evidence

6

Probability=

Most likely, statistically

7

Causation=

One event is reason for second even occurring

8

Coincidence=

2 or more unrelated events which occur at roughly the same time

9

Scientific method=

Method for separating coincidence from causation

10

What is the order for the scientific method?

1) Observation
2) Question
3) Hypothesis
4) Experiment
5) Conclusion
6) Publish important conclusion
7) Conclusions gathered together may become a theory

11

William Harvey was

An English physician who was the first to describe accurately how blood was pumped around the body by the heart. Also called the father of cardiovascular medicine

12

What are the levels of organization?

Chemical level
1) Atom
2) Molecule
Cellular Level
3) Cells
Tissue Level
4) Tissues
Organ Level
5) Organ
Organ System Level
6) Organ system
Organism Level
7) Organism

13

What are the 12 organ systems

1) Integumentary System
2) Skeletal System
3) Muscular System
4) Nervous system
5) Endocrine system
6) Cardiovascular system
7) Lymphatic system
8) Respiratory system
9) Digestive system
10) Urinary system
11) Male reproductive system
12) Female reproductive system

14

What are the organs in the Integumentary system?

Organ system consisting of; skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands

15

What does the integumentary system do?

Provides protection, regulates body temperature, site of cutaneous receptors, synthesizes vitamin D, prevents water loss

16

What are the organs in the skeletal system?

Bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and joints

17

What does the skeletal system do?

Provides support & protection, site of hemopoiesis (blood cell production), stores calcium & phosphorus, provides sites for muscle attachments

18

What are the organs for the muscular system?

Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle. There are 4 major groups: muscles of the lower extremity, the trunk muscles, the muscles of the upper extremity and head-and-neck muscles

19

What does the muscular system do?

Produces body movement, generates heat when muscles contract

20

What organs make up the nervous system

Brain &spinal cord, principal organs of the nervous system include the eyes, ears, sensory organs of taste and smell and sensory receptors in skin, joints, muscles and other parts of the body

21

What does the nervous system do?

A regulatory system that controls body movement, responds to sensory stimuli, & helps control all other systems of the body. Also responsible for consciousness, intelligence, memory

22

What organs make up the endocrine system?

Hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, kidney, testes, ovaries

23

What does the endocrine system do?

Consists of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones, some of which regulate body & cellular growth, chemical levels in the body, & reproductive functions

24

What organs make up the cardiovascular system

heart, arteries, veins, arterioles, venules, and capillaries.

25

What does the cardiovascular system do?

Consists of the heart (a pump), blood, & blood vessels; the heart moves blood through blood vessels in order to distribute hormones, nutrients, & gases, & pick up waste products

26

What are the organs of the lymphatic system?

Capillaries, vessels, nodes, and ducts that collects and transports lymph, which is a clear to slightly yellowish fluid

27

What does the lymphatic system do?

Transports & filters lymph (interstitial fluid transported through lymph vessels) & initiates an immune response when necessary

28

What are the organs of the respiratory system

Nasal cavity, nose, pharynx (throat), larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

29

What does the respiratory system do?

Responsible for exchange of gases (oxygen & carbon dioxide) between blood & the air in the lungs

30

What are the organs of the digestive system

Oral cavity (mouth), salivary glands, pharynx (throat), esophagus, liver, stomach, large intestine, small intestine

31

What does the digestive system do?

Mechanically & chemically digests food materials, absorbs nutrients, & expels waste products

32

What are the organs of the urinary system?

Kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra

33

What does the urinary system do?

Filters the blood & removes waste products from the blood, concentrates waste products in the form of urine, & expels urine from the body

34

What are the organs of the male reproductive system?

1) Ductus deferens
2) Prostate gland
3) Urethra
4) Testes
5) Seminal vesicle
6) Epididymis
7) Penis
8) Scrotum

35

What does the male reproductive system do?

Produces male sex cells (sperm) & male hormones (e.g. testosterone), transfers sperm to the female

36

What are the organs for the female reproductive system?

1)Mammary glands
2) Ovary
3) Uterus
4) Uterine tube
5) Vagina
6) External genitalia (clitoris, labia)

37

What does the female reproductive system do?

Produces female sex cells (oocytes) & female hormones (e.g. estrogen, & progesterone), receives sperm from male, site of fertilization of oocyte, site of growth & development of embryo & fetus

38

What is the difference between organ and organ system?

An organ is a group of tissues that form a part of an organ system, (i.e. esophagus, stomach, intestines) An organ system is a group of organs with a common purpose. (for example the digestive system has the esophagus, stomach, intestines, and so on)

39

What is cranial

Toward the head

40

Cytology is

Study of cells

41

Responsiveness is

Detect & react to stimuli

42

Inguinal region is

Groin

43

Caudal is

Toward the tail

44

Development is

Structural change in the body

45

Vertebral cavity is

Contains spinal cord

46

Histology is

Study of tissues

47

Mediastinum is

Thoracic cavity

48

Systemic anatomy is

Study of organs of one system

49

Cutting a midsagittal section through the body separates the

Right and left halves of the body

50

Examination of superficial anatomic markings & internal body structures as they relate to the covering skin is called

Surface anatomy

51

Which region corresponds to the forearm?

Antebrachial

52

The state of maintaining a constant internal environment is called

Homeostasis

53

The ____ level of organization is composed of two or more tissue types that work together to perform a common function

Organ

54

Which body cavity is located inferior to the diaphragm & superior to a horizontal line drawn between the superior edges of the hip bones?

Abdominal cavity

55

The term used when referring to a body structure that is below, or at a lower level than, another structure is

Inferior

56

The ____ region is the "front" of the knee.

Patellar

57

The sub discipline of anatomy that examines structures not readily seen by the unaided eye is

Microscopic anatomoy

58

What properties are common to all living things?

1) Organization
2) Metabolism
3) Growth & development
4) Responsiveness
5) Adaptation
6) Regulation
7) Reproduction

59

Describe the body in the anatomic position. Why is the anatomic position used?

An individual stands upright with the feet parallel & flat on the floor. The head is level, the eyes look forward. The arms are at either side of the body with the palms facing forward & the thumbs pointing away from the body. By visualizing the body in anatomic position, all observers have a common point of reference when describing & discussing its regions

60

Describe the difference between the directional terms superior & inferior

Superior=closer to the head
Inferior=closer to the feet

61

List the anatomic term that describes each of the following body regions: forearm, wrist, chest, armpit, thigh, and foot

Forearm-Antebrachial
Wrist-Carpal
Chest-Pectoral
Armpit-axillary
Thigh-Femoral
Foot-Pes

62

What are the two body cavities within the posterior aspect, & what does each cavity contain?

Cranial cavity (houses the brain) & Vertebral canal (contains the spinal cord)

63

Describe the structure & function of serous membranes in the body

Composed of 2 layers: Parietal layer (lines internal surface of the body wall) & visceral layer (Covers external surface of organs w/in the cavity). Serous fluid's lubricant properties reduce friction & help organs move smoothly against both one another & the body wall

64

The prenatal period is broken down into shorter periods which are

1) The pre-embryonic period
2) The embryonic period
3) The fetal period

65

The pre-embryonic period is?

First 2 weeks of development when the single cell produced by fertilization (zygote) becomes a blastocyst. This period ends when the blastocyst implants in the lining of the uterus

66

The embryonic period is?

The 3rd-8th week of development. Active time during which versions of the major organ systems appear in the body, which is now called an embryo

67

The fetal period is

Remaining 30 weeks of development when the organism is called a fetus. The fetus continues to grow, & its organs increase in complexity

68

Embryogenesis is

The developmental processes that occur in the pre-embryonic & embryonic periods

69

Cleavage is

The zygote divides by mitosis to form a multicellular structure called a blastocyst

70

Gastrulation is

The blastocyst cells form three primary germ layers, which are the basic cellular structures from which all body tissues develop

71

Organogenesis is

The three primary germ layers arrange themselves in ways that give rise to all organs in the body

72

Following birth, an individual spends a great portion of his or her life undergoing maturation. During this stage what happens?

The body grows & develops, & the sex organs become mature. The sex organs then begin to produce sex cells, or gametes through a process called gametogenesis

73

Hereditary information is carried on?

Chromosomes

74

Human somatic cells contain how many chromosomes?

23 pairs of chromosomes: 22 pairs of autosomes & one pair of sex chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes

75

Autosomes contain?

Genetic information for most human characteristics, such as eye color, hair, height, & skin pigmentation

76

A pair of similar autosomes are called?

Homologous chromosomes

77

What determines whether an individual is female or male?

The pair of sex chromosomes; female will have two X chromosomes & males have one X & one Y chromosome

78

How many chromosomes come from your mother & father?

23 each

79

A cell is said to be a diploid if?

It contains 23 pairs of chromosomes

80

Sex cells (either a secondary oocyte or sperm) are?

Haploid because they contain 23 chromosomes ONLY

81

The process of gametogenesis begins with?

Cell division called meiosis

82

Sex cells produced in females are?

Secondary oocyte

83

Sex cells produced in males are?

Sperm

84

Meiosis is

A type of sex cell division that starts off with a diploid parent cell & produces haploid daughter cells

85

The process of oocyte development is

Oogenesis

86

Oogonia is

The parent cells, or stem cells, that produce oocytes. They reside in the ovaries

87

Gastrulation is

Formation of three primary germ layers

88

Neural tube is

Forms the brain & spinal cord

89

Morula

Solid ball of cells during cleavage

90

Blastocyst is

Structure that implants into the uterus

91

A zygote is

Single cell produced by fertiliation

92

Fertilization of the secondary oocyte normally occurs in the?

Uterine tube

93

The beginning of brain & spinal cord formation is termed?

Neurulation

94

Describe the formation of the primary germ layers

Begins with formation of the primitive streak. Cells detach from the epiblast layer & migrate through the primitive streak between the epiblast & hypoblast layers, this is known as invagination. The layer of cells that forms between these two layers becomes the primary germ layer known as mesoderm. Other migrating cells eventually displace the hypoblast & form the endoderm. Cells remaining in the epiblast then form the ectoderm.

95

What is the source of the three primary germ layers?

The epiblast, through the process of gastrulation, is the source of the three primary germ layers, from which all body tissues & organs eventually derive

96

Describe the difference between the embryonic period & the fetal period

Embryonic: 3rd-8th week of development. Active time when versions of major organ systems appear in the body. Now called an embryo.
Fetal: Remaining 30 weeks of development. Organism now called fetus. Fetus continues to grow, & its organs increase in complexity

97

What do Ribosomes do?

Responsible for synthesizing proteins

98

What are lysosomes?

Organelles housing digestive enzymes

99

Peripheral proteins are

NOT embedded in phospholipid bilayer

100

The Golgi apparatus is

An organelle that sorts & packages molecules

101

Osmosis

Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane

102

Nucleus

Control center; stores genetic information

103

When a cell begins to divide, its chromatin forms?

Chromosomes

104

Facilitated diffusion differs from active transport in that facilitated diffusion?

Expends ATP

105

______ increase the outer surface area of the plasma membrane to increase absorption

Microvilli

106

The major functions of the Golgi apparatus are?

Packaging, sorting, & modification of new molecules

107

Interphase of the cell cycle consists of the following parts

G1, S, G2

108

The organelle that provides most of the ATP needed by all cells is

Mitochondrion

109

During which phase of mitosis do the sister chromatids begin to move apart from each other at the middle of the cell?

Anaphase

110

Describe the three main regions common to all cells,

1) Plasma membrane
2) Cytoplasm
3) Nucleus

111

What is plasma membrane

Sometimes called the cell membrane, forms the outer, limiting barrier separating the internal contents of the cell from the external environment

112

Composition of plasma membrane

Phospholipid bilayer containing cholesterol & proteins & some carbohydrates

113

They cytoplasm is

Place of many metabolic processes of the cell; stores nutrients & dissolved solutes

114

composition of cytoplasm

Contains cytosol, a viscous fluid, & inclusions & organelles

115

Composition of nucleus

Surrounded by double membrane nuclear envelope; contains nucleolus & chromatin

116

Fertilization usually take place in?

The widest part of the uterine tube, called the ampulla

117

Do eggs & sperm arise by mitosis or meiosis? Why?

Meiosis because it combines different genes from both parents.

118

What are "embryonic" stem cells and why are they important and controversial?

An embryonic stem cell is a sort of "blank" cell, one that can be programmed to grow into any other type of cell the body needs. When a fetus initially forms, it is merely a bundle of these stem cells, and over the weeks of development they differentiate into specialized cells to form muscles, the nervous system, the circulatory system an all other tissues.
They are controversial because the fact that these cells are taken from developing embryos has led some to argue that it involves the destruction of human life and should be outlawed.

119

What is the chromosome number for gametes?

*In females the sex cell (secondary oocyte) will have 22 autosomes and one X chromosome
*In males the sex cell (sperm) will first divide by mitosis to make an exact copy (primary spermatocyte). The primary spermatocyte undergo meiosis & produce spermatids. Spermatids contain 23 chromosomes only.
*from a single spermatocyte, four new sperm are formed. Two of the sperm have 22 autosomes and one X chromosome, and two have 22 autosomes and one Y chromosome

120

Ectoderm gives rise to

1) Epidermis of skin & epidermal derivatives (hair, nails, sweat glands, mammary glands)
2) Nervous tissue & sense organs
3) Pituitary gland
4) Adrenal medulla
5) Enamel of teeth
6) Lens of eye

121

Mesoderm gives rise to

1) Dermis of skin
2) Epithelial lining of blood vessels, lymph vessels, body cavities, joint cavities
3) Muscle tissue
4) Connective tissue ( including connective tissue proper, bone, cartilage, blood)
5) Adrenal cortex
6) Heart
7) Kidneys & ureters
8) Internal reproductive organs
9) Spleen

122

Endoderm gives rise to

1) Epithelial lining of respiratory tract, GI tract, tympanic cavity, auditory tube, urinary bladder, & urethra
2) Liver (most of)
3) Gallbladder
4) Pancreas
5) Thymus
6) Thyroid gland
7) Parathyroid gland
8) Palatine tonsils (portion of)

123

The endoderm is the

* Innermost layer.
* Responsible for the development of the lining of the stomach and intestines, mucous membranes and other internal organs and linings

124

The mesoderm is the

Center layer wedged between the ectoderm and endoderm.
* Responsible for the development of mesenchyme.
* Mesenchyme is responsible for the development and growth of muscles, bones, blood and other tissues

125

The ectoderm is the

Outermost layer
* Becomes the epidermis or skin, brain and the nervous system.
* gives rise to other external bodily surfaces