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Flashcards in Lecture digestive system Deck (59):
1

Provides most of the ATP

Mitochondria

2

What two bones make up the Hard palate?

Horizontal plates of the Maxilla and palantine bones

3

Soft palate

Posterior roof; no bone; closes off
nasopharynx during swallowing

4

Begins mechanical manipulation & processing and sensory input

Tongue

5

On the dorsum of the tongue

Papillae

6

Two lymphoid nodules at
the root of the tongue

Lingual tonsils

7

Masticate food into a bolus

Teeth

8

aka “wisdom teeth”

Third molars

9

Salivary glands produce

Digestive enzymes (carbohydrate digestion)
Produce lubricant

10

Largest salivary gland; anterior to the ears, extending over masseter

Parotid

11

Deep; floor of the mouth; empties just lateral to lingual frenulum.

Submandibular

12

Shallow; floor of the mouth; under the tongue

Sublingual

13

Stratified squamous (non-keratinized)

Pharynx, Esophagus

14

Where the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm

Esophageal hiatus

15

Simple columnar; tunica muscularis has a 3rd layer (oblique) inside the usual circular & longitudinal muscle layers. Watery contents is called chyme

Stomach

16

Four regions of the stomach (in order)

Cardia, fundus, body, pyloris

17

G cells

Enteroendocrine cells

18

90% of the nutrients are absorbed here due to amounts of mucosal surface area.

Small intestine

19

permanent internal ridges visible to the naked eye

Plicae circulares

20

Absorb lipids NOT blood capillaries; part of lymph system.

Lacteals

21

(crypts of Lieberkuhn): found near the base of intestinal villi; secrete hormones and enzymes; Goblet cells secrete protective mucus.

Intestinal glands

22

From the pancreas & the intestinal glands digest all classes of molecules..

Digestive enzymes

23

Segmentation: a movement characteristic of the small intestine; a churning motion that does NOT produce any net movement down the GI tract; mixes chyme with
intestinal secretions

Segmentation

24

Starts in the esophagus; net movement down the GI tract

Peristalsis

25

the first region of the small intestine, begins after the pyloric sphincter and ends at the duodenojejunal flexure

Duodenum

26

Duodenum forms a loop around the

Pancreas

27

Where the common bile duct fuses with pancreatic duct; wide variation

Hepatopancreatic ampulla

28

opens to allow juices out, but keeps chyme from reversing back up

hepatopancreatic sphincter

29

Accessory Digestive Organs are

salivary glands, pancreas, liver & gallbladder

30

Tail, body and head; mixed gland; exocrine & endocrine

Pancreas

31

break down all classes of molecules..

Digestive enzymes

32

Endocrine or exocrine: Pancreatic islets

Endocrine

33

Exocrine cells- secrete into ducts

Acinar cells

34

Has four lobes

Liver

35

Divides the right lobe from the left lobe of the liver

Falciform ligament

36

The remnant of the fetal umbilical vein
continuous with the falciform ligament

Round ligament

37

Suspends the liver from the diaphragm

Coronary ligament

38

Blood supply to the liver

Two ways to enter (hepatic artery proper & hepatic portal vein, only one way out (hepatic vein)

39

8 ft long; supported by mesentery; the bulk of chemical digestion & nutrient absorption occurs here

Jejunum

40

Longest (≈12 ft); continues absorption; ends at the ileocecal valve (controls the rate of emptying); Large amount of MALT to counteract bacteria found in the large intestine

Ileum

41

An expandable pouch; the ileum attaches to the medial side of
the cecum at the opening called the ileocecal valve

Cecum

42

Dangles from the cecum; about 3.5 inches long; mucosa & submucosa dominated by lymphatic nodules (like a tonsil).

Vermiform appendix

43

From the hepatic flexure to the splenic flexure

Transverse colon

44

From the splenic flexure to the sigmoid flexure.

Descending colon

45

(S- shaped colon) from the sigmoid flexure to the rectum; posterior to the urinary bladder; suspended by the sigmoid mesocolon

Sigmoid colon

46

From the cecum to the hepatic flexure (right colic flexure)

Ascending colon

47

Temporary storage of feces, presence of feces in rectum triggers the urge to defecate; epithelium changes from simple columnar to non-
keratinized stratified squamous

Rectum

48

Terminus of the rectum

Anal canal

49

small longitudinal folds allow for stretching..

Anal columns

50

(2): smooth muscle forms the internal anal sphincter & skeletal muscle encircles the distal portion of the canal forming the external anal sphincter (voluntary control)

Anal sphincters

51

Epithelium becomes keratinized, stratified squamous

Anus

52

Steps in digestion

1) Ingestion
2) Mechanical processing
3) Secretion
4) Digestion
5) Absorption
6) Compaction
7) Egestion

53

Putting the food/liquid in your mouth

Ingestion

54

Starting with mastication in the mouth, swallowing the bolus at pharynx, churning in the stomach & segmentation in the small intestine

Mechanical processing

55

Enzymes, mucus, water & bile.

Secretion

56

The chemical & enzymatic breakdown of large macromolecules into smaller more absorbable compounds; starting with amylase in the saliva in the mouth & ending with many enzymes in the small intestine..

Digestion

57

Small organic molecules, water, electrolytes, vitamins & minerals through digestive epithelium and into the body. Small intestine.

Absorption

58

Reabsorption of water in large intestine

Compaction

59

Includes indigestible material, as well as some waste products from the liver in bile. Enters the rectum, anal canal and out the anus

Egestion