Flashcards in Lecture digestive system Deck (59):
Provides most of the ATP
What two bones make up the Hard palate?
Horizontal plates of the Maxilla and palantine bones
Posterior roof; no bone; closes off
nasopharynx during swallowing
Begins mechanical manipulation & processing and sensory input
On the dorsum of the tongue
Two lymphoid nodules at
the root of the tongue
Masticate food into a bolus
aka “wisdom teeth”
Salivary glands produce
Digestive enzymes (carbohydrate digestion)
Largest salivary gland; anterior to the ears, extending over masseter
Deep; floor of the mouth; empties just lateral to lingual frenulum.
Shallow; floor of the mouth; under the tongue
Stratified squamous (non-keratinized)
Where the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm
Simple columnar; tunica muscularis has a 3rd layer (oblique) inside the usual circular & longitudinal muscle layers. Watery contents is called chyme
Four regions of the stomach (in order)
Cardia, fundus, body, pyloris
90% of the nutrients are absorbed here due to amounts of mucosal surface area.
permanent internal ridges visible to the naked eye
Absorb lipids NOT blood capillaries; part of lymph system.
(crypts of Lieberkuhn): found near the base of intestinal villi; secrete hormones and enzymes; Goblet cells secrete protective mucus.
From the pancreas & the intestinal glands digest all classes of molecules..
Segmentation: a movement characteristic of the small intestine; a churning motion that does NOT produce any net movement down the GI tract; mixes chyme with
Starts in the esophagus; net movement down the GI tract
the first region of the small intestine, begins after the pyloric sphincter and ends at the duodenojejunal flexure
Duodenum forms a loop around the
Where the common bile duct fuses with pancreatic duct; wide variation
opens to allow juices out, but keeps chyme from reversing back up
Accessory Digestive Organs are
salivary glands, pancreas, liver & gallbladder
Tail, body and head; mixed gland; exocrine & endocrine
break down all classes of molecules..
Endocrine or exocrine: Pancreatic islets
Exocrine cells- secrete into ducts
Has four lobes
Divides the right lobe from the left lobe of the liver
The remnant of the fetal umbilical vein
continuous with the falciform ligament
Suspends the liver from the diaphragm
Blood supply to the liver
Two ways to enter (hepatic artery proper & hepatic portal vein, only one way out (hepatic vein)
8 ft long; supported by mesentery; the bulk of chemical digestion & nutrient absorption occurs here
Longest (≈12 ft); continues absorption; ends at the ileocecal valve (controls the rate of emptying); Large amount of MALT to counteract bacteria found in the large intestine
An expandable pouch; the ileum attaches to the medial side of
the cecum at the opening called the ileocecal valve
Dangles from the cecum; about 3.5 inches long; mucosa & submucosa dominated by lymphatic nodules (like a tonsil).
From the hepatic flexure to the splenic flexure
From the splenic flexure to the sigmoid flexure.
(S- shaped colon) from the sigmoid flexure to the rectum; posterior to the urinary bladder; suspended by the ￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼sigmoid mesocolon
From the cecum to the hepatic flexure (right colic flexure)
Temporary storage of feces, presence of feces in rectum triggers the urge to defecate; epithelium changes from simple columnar to non-
keratinized stratified squamous
Terminus of the rectum
small longitudinal folds allow for stretching..
(2): smooth muscle forms the internal anal sphincter & skeletal muscle encircles the distal portion of the canal forming the external anal sphincter (voluntary control)
Epithelium becomes keratinized, stratified squamous
Steps in digestion
2) Mechanical processing
Putting the food/liquid in your mouth
Starting with mastication in the mouth, swallowing the bolus at pharynx, churning in the stomach & segmentation in the small intestine
Enzymes, mucus, water & bile.
The chemical & enzymatic breakdown of large macromolecules into smaller more absorbable compounds; starting with amylase in the saliva in the mouth & ending with many enzymes in the small intestine..
Small organic molecules, water, electrolytes, vitamins & minerals through digestive epithelium and into the body. Small intestine.
Reabsorption of water in large intestine