Exam 3 Part three Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 Part three Deck (115):
1

What are the effects of oxytocin hormone

Also called "cuddle hormone"
Females: Stimulates smooth muscle contraction in uterine wall; stimulates milk ejection from mammary glands
Male: Stimulates contraction of smooth muscle of male reproductive tract

2

What are the effects of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Stimulates reabsorption of H20 from tubular fluid in kidneys; stimulates vasoconstriction in arterioles of body, thereby raising blood pressure

3

What are the effects of glucagon

Increases blood glucose levels, glycogen breakdown in liver cells, lipid breakdown in adipose cells

4

What are the effects of insulin hormone

Decreases glucose levels in the body fluids, glucose transport into target cells; promotes glycogen & lipid formation & storage

5

What are the effects of glucocorticoids?

Stimulate lipid & protein metabolism; regulate blood glucose levels

6

What are the effects of adrenalin/noradenalin (epinephrine/norepinephrine)

Work with the systemic division of the ANS to stimulate fight-or-flight response

7

Stimulates contraction of uterine wall

Oxytocin

8

Stimulates milk production

Prolactin

9

Made by alpha cells of pancreas

Glucagon

10

Have receptors for specific hormones

Target cells

11

Stimulates thyroid hormone release

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

12

Synthesized by adrenal medulla

Epinephrine

13

Produces regulatory hormones

Hypothalamus

14

Retention of both water and sodium from the kidney occurs as a result of the production & release of?

Glucocortcoid

15

When glucose levels in the blood are elevated,

Insulin is released

16

Which of the following is a tropic hormone: Glucagon, epinephrine, melatonin, growth hormone

Growth hormone

17

Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates the production of?

Gamets (sperm & oocytes) in males & females

18

Which hormone is NOT synthesized by cells in the pituitary gland: Adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid hormone

Thyroid hormone

19

What is the function of glucocorticoids?

Elevate blood glucose levels during periods of stress

20

Which hormone is antagonistic to parathyroid hormone?

Calcitonin

21

Parathyroid hormone is released from the parathyroid gland when blood levels of ____ fall.

Calcium

22

The secretion of epinephrine & norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla is stimulated by

Sympathetic nerve innervation

23

What is the otolithis structure?

Small calcium carbonate crystals, also called statoconia. The gelatinous layer (in the utricle & saccule) & crystals from the otolithic membrane.

24

The semicircular canals

Part of the bony labyrinth. Within the semicircular canals of the vestibular complex, the membranous labyrinth is called the semicircular ducts.

25

Ampulla is

Contained within each semicircular duct region. Located at the end furthest from the utricle connection. Contains an elevated region (crista ampullaris) (or ampullary crest), that is covered by an epithelium of hair cells & supporting cells.

26

Copula is

Hair cells embed both their kinocilia & stereocilia into an overlying gelatinous dome. Extends completely across the semicircular duct to the roof over the ampulla

27

Ceruminous glands produce

A waxlike secretion called cerumen, which combines with dead, sloughed skin cells to form earwax. This material may help reduce infection within the external acoustic meatus by impeding microorganism growth

28

Amplitude is

The maximum extent of a vibration or oscillation, measured from the position of equilibrium

29

Stapedius is

One of two tiny skeletal muscles located w/in the middle ear. Restricts ossicle movement when loud noises occur & protect the sensitive receptors in the inner ear

30

Tensor tympani is

One of two tiny skeletal muscles located w/in the middle ear. Restricts ossicle movement when loud noises occur & protect the sensitive receptors in the inner ear

31

Detects tension in tendons, position of joints

Proprioceptors

32

Malleus, incus, stapes

Auditory ossicles

33

Fluid in the membranous labyrinth

Endolymph

34

Detects pain stimuli

Nociceptor

35

Supports the spiral organ

Basilar membrane

36

Pigmented middle layer of eye

Choroid

37

Sensation of taste

Gustation

38

Attaches to lens

Suspensory ligaments

39

Sensitivity reduced due to constant stimulus

Adaptation

40

Sensation of smell

Olfaction

41

Unencapsulated, terminal branches of dendrites are called

Free nerve endings

42

Baroreceptors are a class of mechanoreceptor that respond to

Changes in pressure

43

Which sensory structure has stereocilia of hair cells embedded in a gelatinous structure called a cupula?

Semicircular duct

44

The photoreceptors that perceive color & sharp vision are?

Cones

45

The tarsal glands secrete?

A lipid-rich product the prevents the eyelids from sticking together

46

The arrangement of tunics in the eye, from the center of the eye to the periphery, is

Retina, vascular, fibrous

47

Receptors in the walls of blood vessels that respond to discrete changes in gas concentration in the blood are called?

Chemoreceptors

48

The lacrimal glands produce lacrimal fluid for each of the following functions except: Cleansing the eye surfae, preventing bacterial infection, humidifying the eye orbit, moistening the eye surface

Humidifying the eye orbit

49

Which statement is true about the cochlear duct?; It is part of the bony labyrinth, it is filled with perilymph, it contains hair cells that convert sound waves into nerve impulses, it contains a spiral organ that rests on a vestibular membrane

It contains hair cells that convert sound waves into nerve impulses

50

What are the functions of blood?

Transportation, regulation, protection

51

Which protein is involved in blood clotting?

Fibrinogen

52

Plasma

Complex mixture of water, proteins, & other solutes. When the blood cells, platelets and clotting proteins are removed from plasma, the remaining fluid is termed serum

53

What is the most abundant compound in plasma?

Water (92%)

54

What are the plasma proteins?

Albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, regulatory proteins

55

What are other salutes in plasma

Electrolytes, nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes

56

Albumins are

Smallest & most abundant of plasma proteins (58%). Regulate H2O movement between blood & interstitial fluid by providing some of the plasma solutes to drive osmosis. Act as transport proteins that carry ions, hormones, & some lipids in the blood

57

Globulins are

The second largest group of plasma proteins (37%). Smaller alpha-globulins & larger beta-globulins bind, support, & protect water-insoluble (hydrophobic) molecules, hormones, & ions. Gamma globulins (immunoglobulins) or antibodies, are soluble proteins produced by some defense cells to protect the body against pathogens that may cause disease

58

Fibrinogen

Makes up 4% of plasma proteins. Responsible for blood clot formation. Following trauma to the walls of blood vessels, fibrinogen is converted into long, insoluble strands of fibrin, which help form a blood clot

59

What is the survival time for a typical RBC?

About 120 days because the absence of both a nucleus & cellular organelles reduce its life span. Aging & the wear and tear of circulation through blood vessels cause them to become more fragile & less flexible

60

Agranulocyte that can develop into macrophage

Monocyte

61

Protein that can be converted into blood clot fibers

Fibrinogen

62

The most numerous luekocyte

Neutrophil

63

Immature form of erythrocyte with a nucleus

Erythroblast

64

Blood cell formation and development

Hemopoiesis

65

Binds to antigens

Antibody

66

The most abundant compound in plasma

Water

67

Formation of erythrocytes

Erythropoiesis

68

In the adult, the stem cell for leukocytes reside in the

Red bone marrow

69

Which type of leukocyte increases during allergic reactions & parasitic worm infections?

Eosinophil

70

Which cell forms platelets in the red bone marrow?

Megakaryocyte

71

Which of the following is not a function of blood: Prevention of fluid loss, nutrient & waste transport, maintenance of constant pH levels, production of hormones

Production of hormones

72

A person with blood type A has

Anti-B antibodies in her blood plasma

73

The hematocrit is a measure of

The percentage of formed elements in the blood

74

Oxygen attaches to an ____ion in hemogloblin

Iron

75

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a mature erythrocyte: Biconcave disc shape, absence of organelles, life span of about 12 months, filled with hemoglobin

Life span of about 12 months

76

Veins that carry blood to the left atrium

Pulmonary veins

77

Also known as bicuspid or mitral valve

Left AV valve

78

Period of relaxation

Diastole cells

79

Origin of heartbeat

SA node

80

Veins that carry blood to the right atrium

Venae cavae

81

Specialized junction between cardiac muscle cells

Intercalated disc

82

Contains three cusps; also known as tricuspid valve

Right AV valve

83

Period of contraction

Systole

84

Muscle impulses are spread rapidly between cardiac muscle cells by

Intercalated discs

85

Venous blood from the heart wall enters the right atrium through the

Coronary sinus

86

How is blood prevented from flowing into the right ventricle from the pulmonary trunk?

Closing of the pulmonary semilunar valve

87

What is the correct circulatory sequence for blood to pass through part of the heart?

R. atrium>r. av valve> r. ventricle> pulmonary semilunar valve

88

The pericardial cavity is located between the

parietal & visceral layers of the serous pericardium

89

The irregular muscular ridges in the ventricular walls are the

Trabeculae carneae

90

Sympathetic innervation of cardiac muscle originates from

T1-T5 segments of the spinal cord

91

When the ventricles contract, all of the following occur except: Closing of the AV valves, blood ejecting into the pulmonary trunk & aorta, closing of the semilunar valves, opening of the semilunar valves

Closing of the semilunar valves

92

The thickest part of the heart wall is the?

Myocardium

93

Superior mesenteric vein drains into it

Hepatic portal vein

94

Composed of endothelium & basement membrane only

Capillary

95

Bifurcation of descending abdominal aorta

Common iliac artery

96

Drains right posterior intercoastal veins

Azygos vein

97

Continuation of femoral artery

Popliteal artery

98

Sends oxygenated blood to right upper limb

Brachiocephalic trunk

99

Drains directly into left atrium

Pulmonary vein

100

All of the following are direct branches of the celiac trunk except the: splenic artery, right gastric artery, left gastric artery, common hepatic artery

Right gastric artery

101

Which statement is true about veins?
Veins always carry deoxygenated blood, veins drain into smaller vessels called venues, the largest tunic in a vein is the tunic externa, the lumen of a vein tends to be smaller than that of a comparably sized artery

The largest tunic in a vein is the tunic externa

102

What is the correct pathway that blood flows through the upper limb arteries

Subclavian>axillary>brachial>radial & ulnar

103

Which of the following veins typically does not drain directly into the inferior vena cava?
Renal, hepatic portal, common iliac, right gonadal

Hepatic portal

104

After birth, the umbilical vein becomes the

Round ligament of the liver

105

Pulmonary surfactant

Alveolar type II cells secrete this. A fluid composed of lipids & proteins that coats the inner alveolar surface to reduce surface tension & prevent the collapse of the alveoli

106

Type I cells

One of two types of cells that form the alveolar wall. Predominate cell. Also called squamous alveolar cell. Promotes rapid gas diffusion across the alveolar wall.

107

Type II cell

Also called septal cell, is part of a smaller population of cells w/in the alveolar wall. Almost cuboidal shape. Secrete pulmonary surfactant

108

Fights invaders

Macrophage

109

What is a pneumothorax & what are its consequences?

Condition that occurs when free air gets into the pleural cavity. Can develop in 2 ways: air may be introduced externally from a penetrating injury to the chest. Or from internally when a broken rib lacerates the surface of the lung.
Consequences: the air in the space can cause the affected lung to deflate until the air has been removed from the pleural space. If it is large it is a medical emergency and can cause death if not treated

110

Pleural cavity

Between the serous membrane layers. When the lungs are fully inflated, the pleural cavity is a potential space because the visceral & parietal pleurae are almost in contact w/each other.

111

pleural membranes

The outer lung surfaces & adjacent internal thoracic wall are lined by a serous membrane called pleura, which is formed from simple squamous epithelium called mesothelium. The outer surface of each lung is tightly covered by visceral pleura, while the internal thoracic walls, the lateral surfaces of the mediastinum, & the superior surface of the diaphragm are lined by the parietal pleura

112

Boyle's law

The pressure of a gas decreases if the volume of the container increases, & vice versa

113

separates the 2 pleural cavities

Mediastinum

114

What is the function of the nasal cavity?

Filtration, conditioning, olfaction, contributes to sound production

115

What muscles are involved in breathing?

Diaphragm, abdominals, ext. & int. intercostals, scalene, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor, transversus thoracis