Exam 3 Part two Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 Part two Deck (115):
1

The external ear is composed of?

Auricle (pinna)
External auditory meatus (canal)
Tympanic membrane (ear drum)

2

The middle ear is composed of?

Middle ear cavity
Middle ear ossicles-Malleus, incus, stapes
Middle ear muscles-Tensor tympani, stapedius
Oval window (receives stapes
Round window (releases pressure)
Auditory(eustachian tube)

3

The inner ear is composed of?

Bony capsule=osseus labyrinth
Tubular sac=membranous labyrinth

4

Fluid of the inner ear are

Endolymph
Perilymph

5

Vessel that carries blood away from the heart

Artery

6

Vessel that carries blood to the heart

Vein

7

Pumped to the right side of the heart

Pulmonary circuit

8

Carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs

Arteries

9

Carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart

Veins

10

Pumped by the left side of the heart

Systemic circuit

11

Carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the organ system

Arteries

12

Carry deoxygenated blood from the organ systems to the heart

Veins

13

Supplies the pulmonary & systemic circuits

Double pump

14

3 layers of the heart

Epicardium
Myocardium
Endocardium

15

Cavity and membranes of the heart

Pericardium
Parietal pericardium
Visceral pericardium
Mediastinum

16

What are the 5 changes that take place after birth?

1) Ductus arteriosus- ligamentum arteriosum
2) Ductus venosus- ligamentum venosum
3) Foramen ovale- fossa ovalis
4) Umbilical areteries- umbilical ligaments
5) Umbilical vein- round ligament

17

Extrinsic eye muscles

Often called extraocular muscles, move the eyes. Termed extrinsic because they origninate w/in the orbit & insert onto the white outer surface of the eye (sclera). Six extrinsic eye muscles; the rectus muscles (medial, lateral, inferior, & superior) and the oblique muscles (inferior & superior)

18

The medial rectus attaches to the

Anteromedial surface of the eye and pulls the eye medially (adducts the eye). Innervated by the CN III (Oculomotor nerve)

19

Lateral rectus

Attaches to the anterolateral surface of the eye and pulls the eye laterally (abducts the eye). Innervated by CN VI (abducens)

20

The inferior rectus

Attaches to the anteroinferior part of the sclera. Pulls the eye inferiorly (as when you look down) & medially (as when you look at your nose). Innervated by CN III

21

The superior rectus

Located superiorly & attaches to the anterosuperior part of the sclera. Pulls the eye superiorly (when you look up) & medially (as when you look at your nose). Innervated by CN III (oculomotor nerve)

22

The oblique eye muscles originate from within the

Orbit & insert on the posterolateral part of the sclera of the eye

23

The inferior oblique

Elevates the eye & turns the eye laterally. Innervated by CN III (Oculomotor nerve)

24

The superior oblique

Depresses the eye and turns the eye laterally. Passes through a pulleylike loop, called the trochlea, in the anteromedial orbit. Attaches to the superior posterior part of the eye, so contracting this muscle pulls the posterior part of the eye superiorly (but depresses the anterior surface of the eye). Innervated by CN IV (Trochlear)

25

Neural tunic

Also called retina or internal tunic.

26

General function of the retina

The retina is the photo receptive sensory layer of the back of the eye (that covers about 65 percent of its interior surface), where the optics of the eye focuses an image of what is in front of the eye. The optic nerve carries signals from the retina to the brain, which interprets them as visual images. The retina has two types of cells the rods and cones. The cones are responsible for color vision while the rods provide black and white and night vision

27

Very light sensitive (night vision); but supplies grainy images & they do not distinguish between colors (black & white)


Rods

28

supply us with color perception & sharper, clearer images; but requires adequate light levels to function; three kinds of cones

Cones

29

Interpretation of sight is where?

Occipital lobes of cerebrum

30

Suspensory ligaments

Holds the lens in place

31

Contraction of ciliary muscles =

Relaxation of ligaments

32

Secrete cerumen (ear wax) which slows the growth of bacteria and traps dirt

Ceruminous glands

33

Role of the auditory canal

Equalize pressure to the middle ear

34

The inner ear has

Cochlea, vestibule and semi-circular canals

35

Hepatic=

liver

36

Renal=

Kidney

37

Gastric=

Stomach

38

Mesenteric =

Mesenteries ( intestines)

39

Splenic=

Spleen

40

Brachio=

Arm

41

Cephalic=

Head

42

Femoral=

Upper leg

43

Iliac=

Loin

44

Subclavian=

Below clavicle

45

Axillary=

Armpit

46

Pulmonary=

Lung

47

Positive feedback loop

Accelerates the original process, either to ensure that the pathway continues to run or the speed up its activities. Only a few of these feedback loops occur in the human body

48

An example of a positive feedback loop is

The process of milk release from the mammory glands

49

What are endocrine glands?

Ductless organs that secrete their molecular products directly into the bloodstream. All endocrine cells are located w/in highly vascularized areas to ensure that their products enter the bloodstream immediately

50

Endocrine v. other glands?

Ductless, direct into blood stream, hormones

51

Pancreas, Insulin and Blood Sugar levels are an example of what kind of feedback loop?

Negative

52

Steroids are derived from what common
molecule?

Cholesterol

53

The anterior & posterior Pituitary produce
how many hormones each?

7&0...why zero? FLATMPGAO

54

What is the “control center”?

The hypothalamus

55

General Characteristics of the Endocrine System

1. endocrine glands secrete hormones.
A. secreted into the bloodstream
B. affects "target” cell.

56

Steroid

Derived from cholesterol; secreted mostly by reproductive organs and adrenal cortex

57

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

1. homeostasis
2. Glands are effectors
3. endocrine glands

58

Amines

Amino acid derivatives & thus small; thyroid hormones & melatonin from the pineal gland are examples

59

Polypeptide & protein

String of amino acids too large to pass through cell membranes. Most hormones are “peptide hormones”
e.g.-ALL pituitary hormones

60

What are the 3 influences of the hypothalamus as a control center?

1) Hormones stimulate the anterior pituitary-FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, MSH, PRL, GH
2) Posterior pituitary hormones are actually made by the hypothalamus-ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) & oxytocin Travel down the axons in the infundibulum to be released by the posterior pituitary
3) Hypothalamus stimulates the Adrenal Medulla (neural)

61

Master control center of the endocrine system, regulates most endocrine activity

Hypothalamus

62

Infundibulum

Connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus. Extends from the base of the hypothalamus at the median eminence

63

Anterior pituitary

Most of the pituitary gland is composed of this. Also called adenohypophysis. Part of the pituitary gland that both produces & secretes hormones. Partitioned into 3 areas; pars distal is, pars intermedia, pars tuberalis

64

The pituitary gland is controlled by the

Hypothalamus. Nervous and endocrine systems combined

65

Posterior pituitary

(Neurohypophysis) is the neural part of the pituitary gland because it was derived from nervous tissue at the base of the diencephalon. Composed of a rounded lobe called the pars nervosa & the infundibular stalk (infundibulum).

66

The thyroid gland

Largest gland entirely devoted to endocrine activities. located inferior to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx & anterior to the trachea. Covered by connective tissue capsule. Exhibits a butterfly shape.

67

The parathyroid gland

Located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. Usually 4 small nodules.

68

Hypothalamus location, hormones, & basic function

Location

69

* Parathormone
* Increase Ca++ in blood

Parathyroid

70

*Numerous hormones
* Immune response

Thymus

71

* Adrenalin (epinephrine)
* Noradrenalin (norepinephrine)
* Corticosteroids

Adrenal

72

* Insulin
* Glucagon
* Glucose balance

Pancreas

73

* Ovaries and Testes
* Sex Hormones
* Estrogen, Progesterone & Testosterone

Gonads

74

Change stimulus into action potential

Transducers

75

Receptors interpret

Stimuli

76

What are the separate origins of the anterior pituitary glands?

1) The pars distalis
2) Pars intermedia
3) Pars tuberalis

77

The pars distalis is

The large anterior portion of the anterior pituitary

78

The pars intermedia is

A thin scant region between the pars distalis & the posterior pituitary

79

The pars tuberalis is

A thin wrapping around the infundibular stalk

80

What are the separate origins of the posterior pituitary glands?

1) Pars nervosa
2) Infundibular stalk (infundibulum)

81

Pars nervosa is

Round lobe part of the posterior pituitary

82

The infundibular stalk is

An elongated funnel-shaped structure that connects the hypothalamus with the pituitary gland

83

Types of receptors (origin)

1) Exteroceptors
2) Interoceptors
3) Proprioceptors

84

Exteroceptors are

Skin receptors & special senses that supply information about the outside world; located near body surface

85

Interceptors

Monitors conditions inside the body (i.e., internal organs)

86

Proprioceptors

Monitors body position (joints & muscles)

87

Types of receptors (stimulus)

1) Mechanoreceptors
2) Thermoreceptors
3) Baroreceptors
4) Chemoreceptors
5) Photoreceptors
6) Nociceptors

88

Mechanoreceptors

Triggered by physical distortion

89

Thermoreceptors

Respond to changes in temperature-free nerve endings

90

Baroreceptors

Pressure within organs

91

Chemoreceptors

Respond to the presence of specific molecules- sense of smell (olfactory) & taste (gustatory)

92

Photoreceptors

Respond to changes in visible light energy

93

Nociceptors

(or pain receptors): respond to extremes in temperature, mechanical damage & chemicals; free nerve endings

94

Felt in another part of body

Referred pain

95

The most superficial sensory receptors of the skin.
Can be associated with hair follicles
root hair plexus

Free nerve endings

96

What is the difference between encapsulated and unencapsulated nerve endings?

Unencapsulated nerve endings are dendrites without a connective tissue wrapping. Encapsulated nerve endings are dendrites wrapped in glial cells or connective tissue.

97

Encapsulated endings are

Dendrites wrapped in glial cells or connective tissue

98

Parathyroid glands

Located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. Two types of cells in the parathyroid gland; chief cells & oxyphill cells.

99

Adrenal cortex exhibits

A yellow color as a consequence of the stored lipids in its cells. Its cells synthesize more than 25 diff. steroid hormones (corticosteroids). Partitioned into 3 regions; zona glomerulosa,zona fasciculata, zona reticularis

100

The zona glomerulosa in the adrenal cortex is a

Thin, outer cortical layer composed of dense, spherical clusters of cells. Synthesize mineralocorticoids

101

The zona fasciculata is the

Middle layer & the largest region of the adrenal cortex. Composed of parallel cords of lipid-rich cells. Synthesizes glucocorticoids

102

The zona reticularis is the

Narrrow band of small, branching cells. Capable of secreting minor amounts of sex hormones called gonadocorticoids. Secrete androgens

103

The adrenal medulla is

Forms the inner core of each adrenal gland. Consists of clusters of spherical cells called chromaffin cells.

104

Thyroid stimulating hormone: source, target, effects

Source: Thyrotropic cells of pars distalis (pituitary gland)
Hormone target: Thyroid gland
Effect: Stimulates thyroid hormone synthesis & secretion

105

Prolactin: source, target, effect

Source: Mammotropic cells of pars distalis (pituitary gland)
Hormone target: Receptors on organs throughout the body, female: mammary glands, male: interstitial cells in testes
Effect: female: Stimulates milk production in mammary glands
Male: May play a role in the sensitivity of the interstitial cells to LH

106

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): Source, target, effect

Source: Corticotropic cells of pars distalis (pituitary gland)
Hormone target: adrenal cortez
Effect: Stimulates production of corticosteroid hormones

107

Growth hormone: source, target, effect

Source: Somatotropic cells of pars distalis (pituitary gland)
Hormone target: almost every cell in the body
Effect: Stimulates increased growth & metabolism in target cells; stimulates syntheiss of somatomedin in the liver to stimulate growth at epiphyseal plate

108

Follicle stimulating hormone: source, target, effect

Source: Gonadotropic cells of pars distalis (pituitary gland)
Hormone target: ovaries, testes
Effect: Stimulates growth of ovarian follicles, sperm production

109

leutinizing hormone: source, target, effect

Source: Gonadotropic cells of pars distalis (pituitary gland)
Hormone target: Ovaries, testes
Effect: Stimulates ovulation, estrogen & progesteron synthesis in corpus luteum of ovary, stimulates androgen synthesis in testes

110

Melanocyte stimulating hormone: Source, target, effect

Source: Cells of par intermedia (pituitary gland)
Hormone target: Melanocytes
Effect: Stimulates synthesis of melanin & dispersion of melanin granules in epidermal cells

111

Melatonin

Hormone whose production tends to be cyclic. Increases at night & decreases during the day. Helps regulate a circadian rhythm (24 hour body clock)

112

Circadian rhythm

Day-night cycles. Referred to as the "body clock", a 24-hour cycle that rules us all. This internal body clock is affected by external forces, such as sun rise and time zones. And when one's circadian rhythm is disrupted, sleeping and eating patterns can run amok

113

Thyroid hormone: source, target, effect

Source: Follicular cells of thyroid gland
Hormone target: Most body cells
Effect: Increases metabolism, O2 use, growth, & energy use; supports & increases rate of development

114

Calcitonin: source, target, effect

Source: Parafollicular cells of thyroid gland
Hormone target: Bone, kidney
Effect: Reduces calcium levels in body fluids; decreases bone resorption & increases calcium deposition in bone

115

Parathyroid hormone; source, target, effect

Source: Chief cells of parathyroid gland
Hormone target: Bone, small intestine, kidney
Effect: Increase Ca++ levels in blood through bone resorption; increases Ca++ absorption by small intestine by calcitriol; decreases Ca++ loss through the kidneys