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Flashcards in Final exam part three Deck (101):
1

Adipose capsule is

Also called the perinephric fat. External to the fibrous capsule & contains adipose connective tissue that varies in thickness. Completely surrounds the kidney & offers cushioning & insulation

2

Homologous structures are

Structures derived from a common ancestor or same evolutionary or developmental origin

3

Derived from common developmental structures (primordia) & serve a common function in adults

Homologues

4

FSH

Follicle stimulated hormone. Released by GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) secretion. As levels of FSH increase, gonads produce significant levels of sex hormones & start the processes of gamete maturation & sexual maturation

5

Clitoris contains

Autonomic nervous system axons that stimulate feelings of arousal & sexual climax

6

Labia majora function

Protect & cover some reproductive structures

7

Glans penis function

Contain autonomic nervous system axons that stimulate feelings of arousal & sexual climax

8

Primordial follicles

Most primitive type of ovarian follicle. Consists of a primary oocyte surrounded by a single layer of squamous follicle cells.

9

Primary follicles are

Forms from a maturing primordial follicle. Consists of a primary oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of cuboidal follicular cells (granulosa cells). Secretes estrogen as it continues to mature, which stimulates changes in the uterine lining

10

Primary oocyte

An oocyte that is arrested in the first meiotic prophase

11

Secondary follicle forms

From a primary follicle. Contains a primary oocyte, many layers of granulosa cells, & fluid filled space (antrum). W/in the antrum is serous fluid that increases in volume as ovulation nears.

12

Surrounding the primary oocyte are

two protective structures, the zona pellucid & the corona radiata

13

Zona pellucida is

A translucent structure that contains glycoproteins

14

Corona radiata is

External to the zona pellucid. Innermost layer of granulosa cells

15

Vesicular follicle forms

From a secondary follicle. Contains a secondary oocyte, numerous layers of granulosa cells, & a large fluid-filled, crescent-shaped antrum. Become large & can be distinguished by their overall size as well as by the size of the antrum

16

Secondary oocyte

Surrounded by a zona pellucid & the corona radiata. Has completed meiosis 1 & is arrested in the second meiotic metaphase

17

What happens when a vesicular follicle ruptures

And expels its oocyte (ovulation) the remnants of the follicle remaining in the ovary turn into yellowish structure called the corpus luteum

18

Corpus luteum is

Does not contain an oocyte. Secretes the sex hormones progesterone & estrogen which stimulate the continuing buildup of the uterine lining & prepare the uterus for possible implantation of a fertilized ovum

19

Corpus albicans are

When a corpus luteum regresses (breaks down), it turns into a white, connective tissue scar called the corpus albicans. Most are completely resorbed, & only a few may remain w/in the ovary

20

Progesterone is

A sex hormone secreted by corpus luteum. Stimulate the continuing buildup of the uterine lining & prepare the uterus for possible implantation of a fertilized ovum

21

Estrogen is

A sex hormone secreted by corpus luteum. Stimulate the continuing buildup of the uterine lining & prepare the uterus for possible implantation of a fertilized ovum

22

Maturation of a primary oocyte to a secondary oocyte

Oogenesis

23

Follicular phase occurs

During days 1-13 of an approximate 28-day ovarian cycle. At beginning of this phase FSH & LH stimulate 20 primordial follicles to mature into primary follicles .

24

Luteal phase occurs during days

15-28 of the ovarian cycle, when the remaining granulosa cells in the ruptured vesicular follicle turn into a corpus luteum

25

The corpus luteum secretes

Progesterone & estrogen that stabilized & build up the uterine lining, & prepare for possible implantation of a fertilized ovum

26

Ovulation occurs

On day 14 of a 28 day ovarian cycle & is defined as the release of the secondary oocyte from a vesicular follicle. Typically only one ovary ovulates each month

27

LH in the ovarian cycle

Luteinizing hormone. With FSH, produces a monthly sequence of events in follicle development. Stimulated by GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone).

28

Birth canal

Vagina

29

Normal site for implantation of a pre-embryo

Uterus

30

Contains two erectile bodies

Clitoris

31

Produces spermatoza

Testes

32

Produces follicles & sex hormones

Ovary

33

Secretion is milky, contains citric acid

Prostate gland

34

Houses the testes

Scrotum

35

Fertilization normally occurs here

Uterine tube

36

Contains 3 erectile bodies

Penis

37

Composed of sperm & seminal fluid

Semen

38

In the male, what cells produce androgens?

Interstitial cells

39

True or false; the testes produce a component of seminal fluid

False

40

Spermatogonia divide by mitosis to form a new spermatogonium &

A primary spermatocyte

41

Sperm are stored in the ____, where they remain until they are fully mature & capable of motility

Epididymus

42

The female homologue to the penis is the?

Clitoris

43

Ovulation occurs due to dramatic "peak" in which hormone?

LH

44

True or false: The cervix projects into the vagina?

True

45

Which structure contains a primary oocyte, several layers of granulosa cells, & an antrum?

Secondary follicle

46

Spermatogonium: Number of chromosomes, haploid or diploid, Action

Chromosomes: 23 pairs (46)
Diploid
Divides by mitosis to produce a new spermatogonium & a primary spermatocyte

47

Spermatogenesis is

The process of sperm development that occurs within the seminiferous tubule of the testis. Does not begin until puberty, when levels of FSH & LH stimulate the testis to begin gamete development

48

All sperm develop from?

Primordial germ (stem) cells called spermatogonia

49

Spermatids are

Secondary spermatocytes complete meiosis (go through meiosis II) & form spermatids. A haploid cell & is surrounded by the sustentacular cell, near the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. Have a circular appearance

50

Spermatids: Number of chromosomes, Haploid or Diploid, Action

Chromosomes: 23
Haploid or Diploid: Haploid
Action: Undergoes spermiogenesis, where most of its cytoplasm is shed, & a midpiece, tail, & head form

51

Acrosomal cap is

Structure that forms over the nucleus during speriogenesis, when the spermatid sheds its excess cytoplasm, & the nucleus elongates. Contains digestive enzymes that help penetrate the secondary oocyte for fertilization

52

Seminiferous tubules are

Contain two types of cells: A group of non-dividing support cells called sustentacular cells, 2) A population of dividing germ cells that continuously produce sperm beginning at puberty

53

Sustentacular cells are

Located w/in seminiferous tubules. Non dividing support cells. Assist with sperm development. Provide a protective environment for the developing sperm, their cytoplasm helps nourish the developing sperm. Release inhibit when sperm count is high.

54

The sustentacular cells are secured together by tight junctions, which form a____

Blood-testis barrier

55

Spermatozoa are

During the final stage of spermatogenesis, a process called spermatogenesis, the newly formed spermatids differentiate to anatomically mature spermatozoa or sperm.

56

Immature spermatozoa are?

Spermatogonia

57

When does the long tail of the sperm form?

As the spermatid elongates, a tail (flagellum) forms from the organized microtubules. The tail attaches to a midpiece (neck) region containing mitochondria & a centriole. Mitochondria provides energy to move the tail.

58

Spermatogenesis occurs in the?

Seminiferous tubules

59

What is the correct sequence of cells in spermatogenesis?

spermatogonium -> primary spermatocyte -> secondary spermatocyte

60

During spermatogenesis, which of the following cells is the first to become haploid?

Secondary spermatocyte

61

T or F:Meiosis II of spermatogenesis results in the formation of secondary spermatocytes

False

62

T or F: During spermatogenesis, spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa

True

63

Estrogen: Primary source of hormone, Effects

Source: Ovarian follicles (before ovulation), corpus luteum (after ovulation), or placenta (during pregnancy)
Effects: Initiates & maintains growth of the functional layer of the endometrium

64

Progesterone: Primary source of hormone, Effects

Source: Corpus luteum or placenta (during pregnancy)
Effects: Primary hormone responsible for functional layer growth after ovulation; causes increase in blood vessel distribution, uterine gland size, & nutrient production

65

Parts of the uterine tube are

Infundibulum, Ampulla, Isthmus, uterine part

66

Infundibulum

The free, funnel-shaped, lateral margin of the uterine tube. It's numerous individual fingerlike folds are called fimbriae which are not attached to the ovary but enclose it at the time of ovulation

67

Ampulla is

The expanded region medial to the infundibulum. Fertilization of a secondary oocyte typically occurs here

68

Isthmus

Extends medially from the ampulla toward the lateral wall of the uterus. Forms about one-third of the length of the uterine tube

69

Primordial follicles are

The most primitive type of ovarian follicle. Consists of primary oocyte surrounded by a single layer of squamous follicle cells.

70

Primary follicles form

From a maturing primordial follicle. Consists of a primary oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of cuboidal follicular cells. Secretes estrogen as it continues to mature.

71

Primary oocyte is

An oocyte that is arrested in the first meiotic prophase

72

Secondary follicles forms

From a primary follicle. Contains a primary oocyte, many layers of granulosa cells, & a fluid filled space (antrum)

73

Vesicular follicle forms from

A secondary follicle. Contains a secondary oocyte (surrounded by a zona pellucida & the corona radiate), numerous layers of granulosa cells, & a large, fluid-filled, crescent-shaped antrum. Become large & can be distinguished by their size & by size of antrum

74

Secondary oocyte

Has completed meiosis I & is arrested in the second meiotic metaphase

75

Corpus luteum is

Yellowish structure. Does not contain an oocyte. Secretes the sex hormones progesterone & estrogen. When it breaks down it turns into a white, connective tissue scar called the corpus albicans

76

Corpus albicans are

When corpus luteum breaks down. White connective tissue scar. Most are completely resorbed, only a few remain w/in ovary

77

Primordial follicle: type of oocyte, anatomic characteristics, time of first appearance

oocyte: Primary oocyte
Characteristics: Single layer of flattened follicular cells surround an oocyte
First appearance: Fetal period

78

Follicular fluid is

A liquid which fills the follicular antrum and surrounds the ovum in an ovarian follicle. This fluid is rich in hyaluronic acid

79

Germinal epithelium is

Thin simple cuboidal epithelial layer surrounding the ovary

80

Tunical albuginea of the ovary is

Deep to the germinal epithelium. Connective tissue capsule. Homologous to the tunica albuginea of the testis

81

Deep to the tunica albuginea, the ovary can be partioned into an outer _____ and an inner ______

Outer CORTEX
Inner MEDULLA

82

The cortex of the ovary contains

Ovarian follicles

83

The medulla of the ovary is composed of

Areolar connective tissue & contains branches of the ovarian blood vessels, lymph vessels, & nerves

84

Oogonium is

Primordial germ cells called oogonia. Diploid cells, have 23 pairs of chromosomes. During the fetal period the oogonia start the process of meiosis, but are stopped at prophase I

85

Polar body

Non functional cell that later deteriorates

86

As the secondary follicle matures into a vesicular follicle, its primary oocyte finishes meiosis I, & two cells form. One of these cells recieves a minimal amount of _______ and forms a _________

* Cytoplasm
* Polar body

87

HCG is

Human chorionic gonadotropin. A hormone that enters the mothers bloodstream & acts on the corpus luteum. Secreted by the pre-embryo.

88

Scrotum is

A skin-covered sac between the thighs, provides the cooler environment needed for normal sperm development & maturation. Homologous to the labia majora in female.

89

Spermatic cord is

Multilayered structure. Originates in the inguinal canal. Wall consists of 3 layers: Internal spermatic fascia, cremaster muscle, external spermatic fascia

90

Cremaster muscle is

One of 3 layers of spermatic cord wall. Formed from muscle fiber extensions of the internal oblique & its aponeurosis

91

Tunica vaginalis is

Serous membrane that covers each testis anteriorly & laterally. Derived from peritoneium of the abdominal cavity. Has outer parietal layer & inner visceral layer that are separated by serous fluid.

92

Tunica albuginea of testes

Thick, whitish, fibrous capsule. Covers testis, lies deep to visceral layer of tunica vaginalis. Thickens & projects into interior of the organ as mediastinum testis.

93

Cremaster reflex

The cremasteric reflex is a type of superficial reflex that is present only in the human male. Involves involuntary contraction of cremaster muscle when inner portion of thigh is lightly stroked. Causes the scrotum and testicle to be pulled into an upward direction.

94

Seminal vesicles

Paired, located on posterior surface of urinary bladder lateral to ampulla of ductus deferens. Elongated, hollow organ. Merges w/ductus deferens to form ejaculatory duct. Secrete a viscous, whitish-yellow fluid containing fructose, prostaglandins & bicarbonate

95

Prostaglandins are

Secreted by seminal vesicles. Hormone-like substances that promote the widening & slight dilation of the external os of the cervix, which facilitates sperm entry into the uterus

96

Fructose

Secreted by seminal vesicles. Sugar that nourishes sperm as they travel through the female reproductive tract.

97

Prostate gland is

Compact, encapsulated organ. Located inferior to bladder. Includes submucosal glands that produce mucin, & more than 30 tubuloalveolar glands that open directly through numerous ducts into the prostatic urethra. Secretes a slightly milky fluid that is weakly acidic & rich in citric acid, seminalplasmin, & prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

98

Seminalplasmin is

Secreted by the prostate gland. Antibiotic that combats urinary tract infections in the male

99

Citric acid is

Secreted by the prostate gland. Nutrient for sperm health

100

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is

Acts as an enzyme to help liquify semen following ejaculation

101

Bulbourethral gland is

Paired, pea-shaped glands (Cowper glands). Located w/in urogenital diaphragm on each side of membranous urethra. Has a short duct that projects into the bulb of the penis & enters the spongy urethra. Tubuloalveolar glands, simple columnar, pseudostratified columnar epithelium