Lecture Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Reproductive System Deck (97):
1

What hormone is produced by the kidney that has an effect on RBC production?

Erythropoietin

2

What does Retroperitoneal mean?

Behind the peritoneal cavity

3

What is the layer of fat that cushions the kidney?

Adipose capsule

4

Difference between peritubular and vasa recta?

Location– “tubular”- tubules, vasa recta- loop

5

What vessel/structure is between the afferent and efferent arterioles?

Glomerulus

6

Anything that enters the space of the glomerular capsule is called _____?

Filtrate

7

Where do you find Podocytes?

Wrapped around the glomerular capillaries

8

What are the two kinds of dialysis?

Hemodialysis & Peritoneal dialysis

9

What is the floor of the bladder w/out rugae called?

Trigone

10

When are homologous pairs important?

During meiosis

11

mitosis v. meiosis
• Amount of chromosomal material at end?
• Type of cells produced?
• Number of divisions?

Chromosomal amount at end-46 v 23
Cells– Body cells v sex cells (gametes)
Divisions-1v2

12

What are chromosomes made of?

DNA

13

When does the DNA replicate?

Interphase before division

14

Why have meiosis?

Cut chromosome # in 1⁄2 for fertilization

15

How many cells are produced in meiosis?

Usually = 4, but depends on whether male or female in humans

16

Development is not determined until

6 weeks or later

17

Homologous structures

Female Male
1) Labia majora 1) Scrotum
2) Labia minora 2) Penis shaft
3) Clitoris 3) Glans penis
4) Ovary 4) Testis

18

XX

Females

19

XY

Males

20

TDF gene

Testis-Determining Factor: On Y chromosome triggers secretion of testosterone

21

Presence of testosterone in the 7th week leads too?

Male development

22

Absence of testosterone leads to

Female development

23

Descend by following gubernaculum

Testes

24

If testis doesn’t descend =

Cryptorchidism. Should descend by one year.

25

A pouch of skin Sperm production is inhibited
by core TB

Scrotum

26

A skeletal muscle which tenses the scrotum & brings testis closer to the body
for temperature regulation

Cremaster muscle

27

; extends into septa and divides the
dense fibrous layer
testis into lobules.

Tunica albuginea

28

Covers tunica albuginea parietal & a visceral layer); these serous membranes reduce friction between surfaces

Tunica vaginalis

29

Meiosis (spermatogenesis)

Seminiferous tubules

30

Between the seminiferous tubules
• Do not produce sperm
• Produce testosterone

Interstitial Cells

31

Drain into a maze of passageways called the rete testis

Seminiferous tubules

32

Efferent ductules join rete testis to epididymus, 23 feet long, lining is simple columnar epithelium with long cilia

Epididymus

33

Sperm cells from the seminiferous tubules do not actively swim; they attain functional maturity during 2 weeks spent in the epididymis

Sperm maturation

34

For the rapid transport of sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct.

Ductus (vas) deferens

35

Column of fascia, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, connective tissue & ducts that descend with the testes

Spermatic cord

36

Ascends through the inguinal canal. Weakness here may cause a hernia.

Ductus deferens

37

Allows for sexual intercourse & contains a portion of the male urethra, three columns of erectile tissue

Penis

38

Two columns of erectile tissue

Corpora cavernosa

39

A single column of erectile tissue that surrounds the penile urethra; glans penis at the tip

Corpus spongiosum

40

Accessory glands produce

95% of semen

41

Contributes ≈60% of the volume of semen –
mostly prostaglandins & fructose; alkaline pH.

Seminal vesicles

42

Promote opening of cervix

Prostaglandins

43

Nourishes sperm

Fructose

44

High pH counteracts low pH of the?

Vagina

45

Inferior to the bladder, contributes ~30% of the volume of semen, contains- Seminalplasmin &
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

Prostate gland

46

Antibiotic effect

Seminalplasmin

47

Helps to liquify semen after ejaculation

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

48

Small; secretes a thick alkaline mucus which neutralizes acids and provides lubrication; contributes ≈5%

Bulbourethral (Cowper’s) gland

49

Stem cell = spermatogonium Meiosis produces four sperm cells = 4 spermatozoa

Spermatogenesis

50

Occurs in Seminiferous tubules

Spermatogenesis

51

Takes 4-5 weeks to complete. Takes place within the cytoplasm of large sustentacular cells

Spermatogenesis

52

Form a spiral around the midpiece of a sperm

Mitochondria

53

The head of a sperm contains

the nucleus that is densely packed with DNA

54

Strong enzymes of sperm get concentrated in the

Acrosome cap

55

Excess cytoplasm is lost resulting in a small cell without energy reserves. Results in?

immature spermatozoa

56

Produce gametes. Produce estrogen & progesterone

Ovaries

57

A layer of simple cuboidal epithelium
that covers the ovary is actually the ovary’s visceral peritoneum

Germinal epithelium

58

The dense connective tissue layer just under the germinal epithelium

Tunica albuginea

59

The outer layer where the production &
maturation of gametes occurs.

Cortex

60

The inner layer that carries the blood vessels Blood supply is through the various ovarian ligaments

Medulla

61

Before birth females have made all the

Gametes they will ever make; mitosis of oogonia (female stem cells) cease

62

Female gamete stuck in Prophase I

Primary oocyte

63

7 million 1o oocytes

In uretro

64

2 million 1o oocytes

At birth

65

300,000-400,000 1o oocytes

At onset of puberty

66

In a typical woman’s entire reproductive life, only

400-500 gametes will finish meiosis I to become 2o oocytes

67

The 1o oocytes remain stuck in prophase 1 until the

Onset of puberty

68

The hormones of puberty stimulate one (sometimes two)

1o oocyte per month to complete meiosis I. This results in a 2o oocyte & a polar body (with most cytoplasm in the oocyte)

69

It is NOT an ovum, but a _____ that is ovulated!

2o oocyte

70

Fusion of sperm with the 2o oocyte stimulates the

Completion of meiosis II ( a second polar body then results)

71

Ovum exits for a very short time before it becomes a?

Zygote

72

Also called oviduct or uterine tube; hollow muscular tubes ≈5 in. long

Fallopian tubes

73

Expanded funnel contains many finger like projections called fimbrae; lined with cilia

Infundibulum

74

Most of the middle portion of the tube; the
usual site of fertilization

Ampulla

75

Short segment adjacent to the uterine wall

Isthmus

76

Development outside the uterus

Ectopic pregnancy

77

Enter the uterine wall at uterine ostium

Fallopian tube

78

Weak peristalsis occurs in

smooth muscle in the days around ovulation; oocyte takes 3-4 days to make the trip

79

In the uterus: The portion of the body superior to the uterine ostia

Fundus

80

Uterus: The largest main portion

Body

81

Uterus: Inferior constriction of the body

Isthmus

82

Uterus: The inferior uterine terminus that extends from the isthmus to the vagina

Cervix

83

Layers of the uterine wall

1) Perimetrium – an outer, serous layer
2) Myometrium – a thick smooth muscle layer
3) Endometrium – an inner layer of glandular mucosa, thickness varies over the monthly uterine cycle

84

Pap smear: What cells are sampled? What is it testing for?

Cells sampled- Cervix
Testing for-Uterine cancer

85

For sexual intercourse, as well as birth canal

Vagina

86

Nonkeratinized stratified
squamous and rugae

Vagina

87

The cervix protrudes into the superior end of the vagina, the vaginal recess that surrounds this cervical protrusion is called the?

Fornix

88

Ovarian cycle

1000’s of primary follicles are present at birth; contain 1o oocytes

89

How many primary follicles develop?

Many develop (primary 1o oocyte)

90

How many secondary follicles develop?

Only one develops (primary 1o oocyte)

91

Secondary (2o) oocyte

Vesicular follicle

92

Results from a surge of LH from the anterior
pituitary at end of follicular phase (1-14 days); some follicular cells exit ovary also- the corona radiata

Ovulation

93

Ovarian cycle

Corpus luteum: old follicle fills with blood; becomes an endocrine structure (secreting estrogen & progesterone); turns a yellow color; if no pregnancy it degenerates into corpus albicans, falling hormone levels trigger menses & the end of the luteal phase; if a pregnancy results, HCG from the developing pre-embryo & placenta maintains the corpus luteum thru 3 months

94

Produces Progesterone and Estrogen to maintain endometrium

Corpus luteum

95

Continues to produce Progesterone under influence of HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

Corpus luteum

96

Placenta eventually produces P & E through birth

Corpus luteum

97

Uterine glands grow to increase?

Thickness