Flashcards in Exam 3 part four Deck (112):
Buffy coat in blood is?
Thin, slightly gray-white matter is composed of leukocytes & cell fragments (platelets). Forms less than 1% of a blood sample
Molecules that can bind to antigens until a leukocyte can completely kill or remove the antigen, are transported in plasma.
What influence would high altitude living have on blood?
Because the air is thinner and there is less O2, each time they breath in, they inhale less O2 than they would at a lower altitude. Their body compensates by making more erythrocytes, more erythrocytes in the blood can carry more O2 to the tissues. This increase in erythrocytes results in an increased hematocrite
The percentage of the volume of all formed elements in the blood
1) Erythrocytes (99%). Transport respiratory gases in the blood
2) Leukocytes (<1%) Blood clotting
RBC's. Mature erythrocytes lack nuclei & organelles. Transport O2 & carbon dioxide to & from the tissues & the lungs. Biconcave disc allows respiratory gases to be loaded & unloaded rapidly.
In RBC's. Red pigmented protein. Transports O2 & carbon dioxide, red color. Has 4 polypeptide chains (globins). 2 called alpha, 2 called beta. Each chain has heme and iron in the center. O2 binds to iron
Yellow green pigment that biliverdin converts to. Component of a digestive secretion called bile, produced by liver cells.
Molecules of the plasma membrane of an erythrocyte. Project from the plasma membrane surface. Most common group is the ABO blood group
WBC that help initiate an immune response & defend the body against pathogens. Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocyte, monocyte
Thrombocytes. Continually produced in red bone marrow by megakaryocytes. Forms blood clots.
Hemopoietic stem cells. Pluripotent cells (differentiate & develop into many diff. kinds of cells). Produce 2 lines for blood cell development: they myeloid & lymphoid.
Erythrocyte production. Begins with myeloid stem cell that forms a progenitor cell.
The production of platelets
The production of leukocytes. Involves 3 diff. maturation processes: granulocyte maturation, monocyte maturation, lymphocyte maturation
The clumping together of cells (such as bacteria and red blood cells) or particles
The ABO blood system is
classification of human blood based on the inherited properties of red blood cells (erythrocytes) as determined by the presence or absence of the antigens A and B, which are carried on the surface of the red cells. Persons may thus have type A, type B, type O, or type AB blooD
Why does an iron poor diet lead to anemia?
Because it is a condition in which the counts of erythrocytes is less than normal. Occurs due to inadequate production or decreased survival of erythrocytes. Without enough iron in your diet there isn't anything for 02 to bind to in RBC's without iron.
Fibrinogen is activated to form fibrin nets & activated platelets can easily get caught to form a platelet plug
Platelet plug is
A platelet plug is a collection of sticky platelets that's used to stop a wound from bleeding
Platelets that function in blood clotting. Inactive platelets are smooth, but can become very irregular & sticky.
What is in the buffy coat?
WBC's & platelets
O2 and Co2 in blood
Binds to hemoglobin in the RBC's. O2 binds to iron in heme of hemoglobin.
Anemia is having a low _____ (diagnostic term?).
The blood forming stem cell?
Where is most of the O2 carried?
Heme (with Fe)
Biconcave, hemoglobin containing, enucleate, round, O2 carrying, short lived
Which WBC becomes a macrophage?
What blood can Type A receive?
Type A or Type O
When does Rh cause a problem?
Mom is Rh-, baby is Rh+ and she has previously had an Rh+
When blood cells clump it is called?
Which pumps blood to the body (not lungs)?
A contracting heart muscle is in _____? (phase of cardiac cycle?)
Action potentials in the heart are conducted along?
Pacemaker of the heart is?
Ascultation of the heart is listening for?
Blood flow into capillaries is controlled by?
What is meant by the heart being a “double-pump”? Why?
Pulmonary & systemic circuits. Repressurize blood after oxygenating. Key term is “repressurize"
Carry blood away from heart. Most carry blood in high O2 (except for pulmonary arteries)
Carry blood back to the heart. Most carry blood in low O2 (except for pulmonary veins)
Pulmonary circulation consists of
The chambers on the right side of the heart as well as the pulmonary arteries & veins. Conveys blood to the lungs via pulmonary arteries to reduce Co2 and replenish O2 levels in the blood before returning to the heart in pulmonary veins
Systemic circulation consists of
The chambers on the left side of the heart, along with all the other named blood vessels. Carries blood to all peripheral organs & tissues of the body.
Pericardial cavity is
Thin space between the parietal & visceral layers of the serous pericardium. Serous fluid is secreted to lubricate the serous membranes & facilitate the movement of the heart when it beats. Potential space with a thin lining of serous fluid.
Outermost heart layer (visceral layer) of serous pericardium. Composed of a serous membrane & areolar connective tissue
Middle layer of heart wall composed of cardiac muscle tissue. Thickest layer. Lies deep to the epicardium & superficial to endocardium. Where myocardial infarction (heart attacks) occur.
Covers the internal surface of the heart & the external surfaces of the heart. Composed of eimple squamous epithelium & a layer of areolar connective tissue
Sinoatrial (SA) node. The rhythm center that establishes the pace for cardiac activity. Under the influence of parasymphathetic innervation, SA node cells initiate impulses 70-80 times per minute.
Sinoatrial node is
The heartbeat is controlled by specialized cardiac muscle cells of the SA node. Located in the posterior wall of the right atrium, adjacent to the entrance of the superior vena cava. Pacemaker
Atrioventricular (AV) node is
Located in the floor of the right atrium between the right AV valve & the opening for the coronary sinus. Slows conduction of the impulse as it travels from the atria to the ventricles, providing a delay between activation & contraction of the ventricles
AV bundle is
Bundle of His, receives the muscle impulse from the AV node & extends into the interventricular septum before dividing into left & right bundles. These conduct the impulse to conduction fibers (purkinje)
Bundle branches in the cardiac cycle
When the impulse reaches the purkinje fibers it branches to the apex & extend throughout the walls of the ventricles.
Internodal pathways are
Located in the walls of the atria.
• Links the SA node to the AV node.
• Function- Distributes the action potential to the contractile cells of the atria.
Conduction myofibers are
The specialized large-diameter cardiac muscle fibers which conduct electrical impulses from the AV bundle into the ventricular walls; they have lost the capacity to contract, and therefore, do not have myofibrils; they are regulated by the conduction control centers of the heart, the SA and AV nodes.
What happens when a mother has problems with a fetus due to Rh antigen?
Mom is Rh-, baby is Rh+ and she has previously had an Rh+
What gland produces secretion that keeps eyelids from sticking together?
Which extrinsic eye muscle has a trochlea?
What are the 3 tunics of the eye?
Fibrous, vascular, neural
Which has choroid?
Area of sharpest vision? What receptors?
Fovea centralis, cones
What anatomy happens at the blind spot?
Nerve fibers and blood vessels exit eye
What does ciliary muscle do to make the lens fatter, wider?
Contracts (which moves ciliary body closer to the lens)
Difficulty reading? You have?
What controls pupil size?
Muscles of the iris
What is a Stapedius & Tensor Tympani
Muscles attached to ossicles
How many semi-circular canals? Why?
3; one in each plane
Capillary beds supply
The cardiac tissue with oxygen and nutrition..
provides the internal lining of each chamber
provides the serous membrane covering of the
heart. (Epicardium = visceral pericardium
Smallest & most delicate Endothelium & basement membrane (basal lamina) only
* Thinner wall (less tunica media,
more tunica externa)
* Valves to prevent backflow (or
else... varicose veins
What vessel by-passes the fetal liver?
Name two ways to by-pass the fetal lungs
1) Foramen ovale
2) Ductus arteriosus
What causes the changes after birth?
1. That first breath!
2. Cutting of the umbilical supply
Transportation of nutrients & O2 as well as metabolic wastes to be excreted.
Homeostasis- Temperature, blood pressure, salts.
Specialized immune cells protect from infection & disease
Plasma the liquid matrix of blood
Plasma is usually slightly more than half of whole blood. The vast majority of plasma is water
￼￼￼￼￼￼≈ 7% = blood proteins albumins (transports lipids & steroids); globulins (antibodies) fibrinogen (clotting)
≈ 1% are other ions (Na+, Cl-, Ca++, K+, HCO3-); nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids) wastes (urea, uric acid, bilirubrin)
Briefly describe hematocrite
RBC percent of the total volume
• Important in diagnosis
• Iron poor diet
• High altitude living = higher hematocrit
Expulsion of the cell’s nucleus
Blood flow into capillaries is controlled by?
(of a cell) lacking a nucleus. RBC's
Taste interpretation is
In the Insula (cerebral cortex)
• But integrates texture and olfaction
Inside space, of a vessel through which blood flows
Tunic media is
Middle layer of the vessel wall. Composed of circulatory arranged layers of smooth muscle cells
A simple squamous epithelium lining the blood vessel lumen
Smallest arteries. Have less than 6 layers of smooth muscle in their tunic media.
The smallest veins. Companion vessels with arterioles.
Most veins contain numerous valves formed of tunic intima & strenghtened by elastic & collagen fibers
Varicose veins are
Dilated, tortuous veins. Valves have become nonfunctional, causing blood to pool in one area & the vein to swell & bulge. Most common in superficial veins of lower limbs.
Intercalated discs are
Specialized cell-cell contacts. Electrically & mechanically link the cells together & permit the immediate passage of muscle impulses
Where does the conduction of an action potential take place in cardiac tissue?
a membrane that covers smooth, striated, and cardiac muscle fibers
left & right travel w/in the coronary sulcus of the heart to supply the heart wall. Only branches of the ascending aorta. Openings of these arteries are located in the wall of the ascending aorta superior to the aortic semilunar valve
Coronary sinus is
Large vein that lies in the posterior aspect of the coronary sulcus. Drains directly into right atrium of the heart.
Cardiac veins are
* great cardiac vein runs alongside the anterior interventricular artery
* middle cardiac vein runs alongside the posterior interventricular artery
*small cardiac vein travels close to the right marginal artery
All drain into coronary sinus
The thin-walled chambers of the heart that pump blood into the ventricles. Consists of right atrium and left atrium
Muscular chamber that pumps blood out of the heart and into the circulatory system
Coronary bypass is
A surgical procedure performed to improve blood supply to the heart by creating new routes for blood flow when one or more of the coronary arteries become obstructed. The surgery involves removing a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body, such as the leg, and grafting it onto the heart to circumvent the blocked artery. Also called coronary bypass surgery
The pericardial membranes are
1) Fibrous Pericardium - the outer fibrous sac that covers the heart
2) Parietal Pericardium - lies between the visceral pericardium and the fibrous pericardium.
3) Visceral Pericardium - also called the epicardium, this is the outer layer of the wall of the heart
Rh antigen is
An antigen found on the surface of red blood cells. Red blood cells with the antigen are said to be Rh positive (Rh+). Those without the surface antigen are said to be Rh negative (Rh-)
Blood clotting is
Coagulation is a complex process by which the blood forms clots to block and then heal a lesion/wound/cut and stop the bleeding. In hemostasis a damaged blood vessel wall is plugged by a platelet and a fibrin-containing clot to stop the bleeding, so that the damage can be repaired
Uric acid is
Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. From there, it passes out in urine.
The chief nitrogenous endproduct of protein metabolism, formed in the liver from amino acids and from ammonia compounds; found in urine, blood, and lymph
What areas of the brain control breathing?
The medulla oblongata in the brain stem
Contains pharyngeal tonsil
Lacks cartilage but has significant amounts of smooth muscle in wall
Causes air turbulence in nasal cavity
Has a cardiac notch & cardiac impression
Solid ring of hyaline cartilage
Branches directly from the trachea
Produces pulmonary surfactant
Alveolar type II cell
Vocal folds attach to it
Phagocytic cell in alveoli