Flashcards in Lecture Urinary System Deck (66):
Wavelike movement of food is called?
What structures in the oral cavity help fight disease?
Chewing is also know as
What is the usual molecule that supplies energy directly to a cell?
What does digestion do?
Supplies the molecules that cells/mitochondria can use to make ATP
Defecation is also known as
What’s the dental formula?
What do salivary enzymes do?
What and where is MALT?
Lymphatics, tunica mucosa
What is the Esophageal hiatus?
Where Esophagus goes thru diaphragm
Where do you find parietal, chief and enteroendocrine cells?
Stomach, gastric glands
Which produces HCl? Gastrin?
What increases surface area in small intestines?
Plicae circulares, villi, microvilli..
What is a lacteal?
Lymphatic vessels in villi, absorb lipids
Where does bile enter the G.I. Tract?
A cluster of MALT in the small intestine is known as
The membrane that suspends the stomach is the
The ligament that suspends the liver is
Acinar cells (acini) are found where and do what?
Pancreas, digestive enzymes..
What are gallstones made of?
What ingredient in bile comes from RBC’s?
What are the two ways that blood can enter the liver?
Hepatic artery and Hepatic portal vessel
What is a Triad?
At each corner of hepatic lobule, hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein and bile duct
Function of oral cavity?
Mechanical and chemical- carb. digestion
Function of stomach?
Mechanical (chyme) and chemical- protein
Function of small intestine?
Chemical (all classes) & absorption
Function of Large intestine?
Reabsorption, compaction, storage
Primary organ in the urinary system
Secondary organs in the urinary system
Function of urinary system is
1) Remove waste from blood
2) Store and excrete urine
3) Blood volume regulation – Effect on blood pressure
4) Regulation of RBC production – Thru erythropoietin
5) Low O2 erythropoietin production
6) EP hemocytoblast activity RBC
Each kidney is protected & stabilized by
Three concentric layers of connective tissue
Dense irregular collagen fibers for protection
Renal (fibrous) capsule
Perirenal fat can be quite thick & provides insulation & cushioning
Dense outer layer anchors the kidneys to surrounding tissues
Kidneys from the outside in
1) Renal capsule: Covers the kidneys
2) Cortex: in contact with capsule; contains many small blood vessels & glomeruli
3) Medulla: under the cortex are conical renal pyramids separated by renal columns; pyramids contain many fine tubules, columns have blood vessels
4) Renal Pelvis: collects urine from all the renal pyramids; continuous with the ureter
Bloop vessels of the nephron
1) Interlobular artery
2) Afferent arteriole (larger diameter)
3) Glomerular capillaries
4) Efferent arteriole (smaller diameter)
5) Peritubular capillaries (cortex) & vasa recta (medulla)
6) Interlobular vein
Glomerulus & a glomerular capsule
Where filtration first takes place
First part of the nephron
A network of specialized leaky capillaries
Anything that enters glomerular capsule is called
Blood cells & proteins are too large to pass into the
Blood or proteins in the urine indicate?
Filtration is about how many gallons per day?
50 gallons per day
Regulates blood pressure
Filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion
What is dialysis?
• Artificial waste removal from blood
• Due to kidney malfunction
• Two kinds
• Peritoneal dialysis
Continuous with renal pelvis; muscular tube
Exits the kidney at the hilum. Travels about 12 inches before entering the posterior wall of the bladder at the slit- like ureteral opening. Smooth muscle layers perform peristaltic contractions that “milk” urine out of each renal pelvis
• Mineral stones- Ca+, NH3
• Form in the calyx or renal pelvis
• Pass through the ureter and urethra if small enough
• Ultra sound to break up if too large
• Drink plenty of water
Kidney stones- Calculi
Muscular organ, temporary storage of urine
compresses the bladder to expel urine out the urethra
Transitional epithelium lining with rugae. T.E. allows for?
Stretching of surface
Triangular area bound by the two ureteral openings and the entrance to the urethra; lacks rugae and acts like a funnel
Stretch receptors begin the?
Involuntary ring of smooth muscle
Internal urethral sphincter
A ring of skeletal muscle, Voluntary control
External urethral sphincter
Urethra in females is
Very short (1-11⁄2 in.); from the bladder to the vaginal orifice
Urethra in males is
Much longer (7-8 in.); shared function between urinary & reproductive systems; prostatic urethra, membranous urethra & penile (spongy) urethra
Can reveal diseases such as:
– Kidney disease
– Urinary tract infections
What molecule makes up chromosomes?
What happens to DNA before Mitosis?
DNA condenses at?
The beginning of mitosis
What letter of the alphabet does a chromosome look like at the beginning of mitosis?
Two sets of phases for meiosis