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Flashcards in Lecture Urinary System Deck (66):
1

Wavelike movement of food is called?

Peristalsis

2

What structures in the oral cavity help fight disease?

Tonsils

3

Chewing is also know as

Masticate

4

What is the usual molecule that supplies energy directly to a cell?

ATP

5

What does digestion do?

Supplies the molecules that cells/mitochondria can use to make ATP

6

Defecation is also known as

Egestion

7

What’s the dental formula?

2/2,1/1,2/2,3/3X2=32

8

What do salivary enzymes do?

Carbohydrate digestion

9

What and where is MALT?

Lymphatics, tunica mucosa

10

What is the Esophageal hiatus?

Where Esophagus goes thru diaphragm

11

Where do you find parietal, chief and enteroendocrine cells?

Stomach, gastric glands

12

Which produces HCl? Gastrin?

Parietal, enteroendocrine

13

What increases surface area in small intestines?

Plicae circulares, villi, microvilli..

14

What is a lacteal?

Lymphatic vessels in villi, absorb lipids

15

Where does bile enter the G.I. Tract?

Duodenum

16

A cluster of MALT in the small intestine is known as

Peyer’s patches

17

The membrane that suspends the stomach is the

Lesser omentum

18

The ligament that suspends the liver is

Coronary ligament

19

Acinar cells (acini) are found where and do what?

Pancreas, digestive enzymes..

20

What are gallstones made of?

Cholesterol

21

What ingredient in bile comes from RBC’s?

Bilirubin

22

What are the two ways that blood can enter the liver?

Hepatic artery and Hepatic portal vessel

23

What is a Triad?

At each corner of hepatic lobule, hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein and bile duct

24

Function of oral cavity?

Mechanical and chemical- carb. digestion

25

Function of stomach?

Mechanical (chyme) and chemical- protein

26

Function of small intestine?

Chemical (all classes) & absorption

27

Function of Large intestine?

Reabsorption, compaction, storage

28

Primary organ in the urinary system

Kidney

29

Secondary organs in the urinary system

1) Ureters
2) Bladder
3) Urethra

30

Function of urinary system is

1) Remove waste from blood
2) Store and excrete urine
3) Blood volume regulation – Effect on blood pressure
4) Regulation of RBC production – Thru erythropoietin
5) Low O2 erythropoietin production
6) EP hemocytoblast activity RBC

31

Each kidney is protected & stabilized by

Three concentric layers of connective tissue

32

Dense irregular collagen fibers for protection

Renal (fibrous) capsule

33

Perirenal fat can be quite thick & provides insulation & cushioning

Adipose capsule

34

Dense outer layer anchors the kidneys to surrounding tissues

Renal Fascia

35

Kidneys from the outside in

1) Renal capsule: Covers the kidneys
2) Cortex: in contact with capsule; contains many small blood vessels & glomeruli
3) Medulla: under the cortex are conical renal pyramids separated by renal columns; pyramids contain many fine tubules, columns have blood vessels
4) Renal Pelvis: collects urine from all the renal pyramids; continuous with the ureter

36

Bloop vessels of the nephron

1) Interlobular artery
2) Afferent arteriole (larger diameter)
3) Glomerular capillaries
4) Efferent arteriole (smaller diameter)
5) Peritubular capillaries (cortex) & vasa recta (medulla)
6) Interlobular vein

37

Glomerulus & a glomerular capsule

Renal Corpuscle

38

Where filtration first takes place

Glomerulus

39

First part of the nephron

Renal corpuscle

40

A network of specialized leaky capillaries

Glomerulus

41

Anything that enters glomerular capsule is called

Filtrate

42

Blood cells & proteins are too large to pass into the

Glomerular capsule

43

Blood or proteins in the urine indicate?

Kidney damage

44

Filtration is about how many gallons per day?

50 gallons per day

45

Regulates blood pressure

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

46

Urine production

Filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion

47

What is dialysis?

• Artificial waste removal from blood
• Due to kidney malfunction
• Two kinds
• Hemodialysis
• Peritoneal dialysis

48

Continuous with renal pelvis; muscular tube

Ureters

49

Exits the kidney at the hilum. Travels about 12 inches before entering the posterior wall of the bladder at the slit- like ureteral opening. Smooth muscle layers perform peristaltic contractions that “milk” urine out of each renal pelvis

Ureter

50

• Mineral stones- Ca+, NH3
• Form in the calyx or renal pelvis
• Pass through the ureter and urethra if small enough
• Ultra sound to break up if too large
• Drink plenty of water

Kidney stones- Calculi

51

Muscular organ, temporary storage of urine

Urinary bladder

52

compresses the bladder to expel urine out the urethra

Detrusor muscle

53

Transitional epithelium lining with rugae. T.E. allows for?

Stretching of surface

54

Triangular area bound by the two ureteral openings and the entrance to the urethra; lacks rugae and acts like a funnel

Trigone

55

Stretch receptors begin the?

Micturition reflex

56

Involuntary ring of smooth muscle

Internal urethral sphincter

57

A ring of skeletal muscle, Voluntary control

External urethral sphincter

58

Urethra in females is

Very short (1-11⁄2 in.); from the bladder to the vaginal orifice

59

Urethra in males is

Much longer (7-8 in.); shared function between urinary & reproductive systems; prostatic urethra, membranous urethra & penile (spongy) urethra

60

Urinalysis

Can reveal diseases such as:
– Diabetes
– Kidney disease
– Urinary tract infections

61

What molecule makes up chromosomes?

DNA

62

What happens to DNA before Mitosis?

DNA replication

63

DNA condenses at?

The beginning of mitosis

64

What letter of the alphabet does a chromosome look like at the beginning of mitosis?

X

65

Two sets of phases for meiosis

IPMAT, PMAT

66

• Homologous pairs
• Reduction division
• Gamete production

Meiosis