Chapter 1.4 Precise Language of Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1.4 Precise Language of Anatomy Deck (149):
1

Descriptions of any region or body part require an

Initial point of reference and the use of directional indicators

2

In the anatomic position

An individual stands upright with the feet parallel and flat on the floor. The head is level, and the eyes look forward toward the observer. The arms are at either side of the body with the palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body

3

By visualizing the body in anatomic position, all observers have common

Point of reference when describing and discussing its regions

4

Anatomists refer to real or imaginary "slices" of the body called

Sections or planes

5

The term section implies

An actual cut or slice to expose the internal anatomy

6

The word plane implies

An imaginary flat surface passing through the body

7

What are the three major anatomic planes through the body or individual organs are?

1) Coronal
2) Transverse
3) Midsagittal planes

8

Describe a coronal plane

Also called a frontal plane, it is a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts.

9

When a coronal plane is taken through the trunk, the anterior and the posterior portion contains what

The anterior portion contains the chest and the posterior portion contains the back

10

Describe a transverse plane

Also called a cross-sectional plane or horizontal plane, cuts perpendicularly along the long axis of the body or organ.

11

For a transverse plane the body or organ is separated into what

Both superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts, and the relationship of neighboring organs at a particular level is revealed.

12

Computed tomography (CT) scans provide what type of anatomic plane

They provide transverse sectional images of the body for study

13

Describe a midsagittal plane

Or median plane, extends through the body or organ vertically and divides the structure into right and left halves

14

A plane that is parallel to the midsagittal plane, but either to the left or right, is termed what

A sagittal plane

15

A sagittal plane divides a structure into?

Right and left portions that may or may not be equal

16

How many numbers of midsagittal and sagittal planes are there?

There is only one midsagittal plane and an infinite number of sagittal planes

17

A midsagittal or sagittal plane is often used to show what

Internal body parts, especially in the head and thoracic organs

18

In addition to the 3 major planes (coronal, transverse, and midsagittal planes) there is a minor plane called

The oblique plane which passes through the specimen at an angle

19

Interpreting body sections has become important for who

Health-care professionals

20

To determine the shape of any object within a section, we must be able to

Reconstruct its three-dimensional shape by observing many continuous sections

21

Anterior means

In front of; toward the front surface

22

Give an example of anterior for the stomach and spinal cord

The stomach is anterior to the spinal cord

23

Posterior means

In back of; toward the back surface

24

Give an example of posterior for the heart and sternum

The heart is posterior to the sternum

25

Dorsal means

At the back side of the human body

26

Give an example of dorsal for the human body and spinal cord

The spinal cord is on the dorsal side of the body

27

Ventral means

At the belly side of the human body

28

Give an example of ventral for the body and the umbilicus (navel, belly button)

The umbilicus is on the ventral side of the body

29

Superior means

Closer to the head

30

Inferior means

Closer to the feet

31

Caudal means

At the rear of the tail end

32

Give an example of caudal for the abdomen and head

The abdomen is caudal to the head

33

Cranial means

At the head end

34

Rostral means

Toward the nose

35

Medial means

Toward the middle of the body

36

Lateral means

Away from the midline of the body

37

Deep means

On the inside, underneath another structure

38

Superficial means

On the outside

39

Proximal means

Closest to point of attachment to trunk

40

Distal means

Furthest from point of attachment to trunk

41

True or false. The elbow is proximal to the hand

True

42

True or false. The wrist is distal to the elbow

True

43

The human body is partitioned into two main regions called

The axial and appendicular regions

44

The axial region includes

The head, neck, and trunk; it forms the main vertical axis of the body

45

What makes up the appendicular region

Our limbs, or appendages, attach to the body's axis and make up the appendicular region

46

Describe the abdominal region

Region inferior to the thorax (chest) and superior to the hip bones

47

Describe the antebrachial region

Forearm (the portion of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist

48

Describe the antecubital region

Region anterior to the elbow; also known as the cubital region

49

Describe the auricular region

Ear (visible surface structures of the ear and the ear's internal organs)

50

Describe the axillary region

Armpit

51

Describe the brachial region

Arm (the portion of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow

52

Describe the Buccal region

Cheek

53

Describe the calcaneal region

Heel of the foot

54

Describe the carpal region

Wrist

55

Describe the cephalic region

Head

56

Describe the cervical region

Neck

57

Describe the coxal region

Hip

58

Describe the cranial region

Skull

59

Describe the crural region

Leg (the portion of the lower limb between the knee and the ankle)

60

Describe the deltoid region

Shoulder

61

Describe the digital region

Fingers or toes (also called phalangeal)

62

Describe the dorsal region

Back

63

Describe the femoral region

Thigh

64

Describe the fibular region

Lateral aspect of the leg

65

Describe the frontal region

Forehead

66

Describe the gluteal region

Buttock

67

Describe the Hallux region

Great toe

68

Describe the Inguinal region

Groin (sometimes used to indicate just the crease in the junction of the thigh with the trunk)

69

Describe the lumbar region

Relating to the loins, or the part of the back and sides between the ribs and pelvis

70

Describe the Mammary region

Breast

71

Describe the manus region

Hand

72

Describe the mental region

Chin

73

Describe the nasal region

nose

74

Describe the occipital region

Posterior aspect of the head

75

Describe the olecranal region

Posterior of the elbow

76

Describe the oral region

Mouth

77

Describe the orbital region

Eye

78

Describe the palmar region

Palm of the hand

79

describe the patellar region

Kneecap

80

Describe the pelvic region

Pelvis

81

Describe the Perineal region

Diamond-shaped region between the thighs that contains the anus and selected external reproductive organs

82

Describe the per region

Foot

83

Describe the plantar region

Sole of the foot

84

Describe the pollex region

Thumb

85

Describe the popliteal region

Area posterior to the knee

86

The pubic region is

Anterior region of the pelvis

87

The radial region is

Lateral aspect of the forearm

88

The sacral region is

Posterior region between the hip bones

89

The scapular region is

Shoulder blade

90

The sternal region is

Anterior middle region of the thorax

91

The sural region is

The calf (posterior part of the leg)

92

The tarsal region is

Root of the foot

93

The thoracic region is

The chest or thorax

94

The tibial region is

Medial aspect of the leg

95

The ulnar region is

Medial aspect of the forearm

96

The umbilical region is

The navel

97

The vertebral region is

Spinal column

98

Internal organs and organ systems are housed within

Separate enclosed spaces, or cavities

99

Cavities are named according to

The bones that surround them or the organs they contain

100

The axial region is subdivided into two areas

The posterior aspect and the ventral cavity

101

How many cavities does the posterior aspect have

Two enclosed cavities which are the cranial cavity and the vertebral canal

102

The cranial cavity is formed by

The cranium (specifically, the neurocranium) and houses the brain

103

The vertebral canal is formed by

The individual bones of the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord

104

The cranial cavity and the vertebral canal of the posterior aspect are two cavities that are encased in

Bone and thus are physically and developmentally different from the ventral cavity

105

The ventral cavity arises from a space called

The coelom that forms during embryonic development

106

The ventral cavity eventually becomes partitioned into

A superior thoracic cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity with the formation of the thoracic diaphragm, a muscular partition that develops between these cavities

107

Both the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are lined with

Thin serous membranes

108

What are the layers that serous membranes are composed of?

Two layers, a parietal layer that lines the internal surface of the body wall and a visceral layer the covers the external surface of organs (viscera) within the cavity

109

Between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous membrane is

A thin serous cavity that is actually a potential space

110

A potential space is capable of becoming

A larger cavity

111

A serous cavity contains a film of what

Serous fluid that is secreted by the cells of the serous membranes

112

Serous fluid has the consistency of

Oil, and serves as a lubricant

113

The median space in the thoracic cavity is called

The mediastinum

114

The mediastinum contains

The heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels

115

Within the mediastinum, the heart is enclosed by

Two layered serous membrane called the pericardium

116

Outermost layer and forms the sac around the heart

Parietal pericardium

117

Forms the hearts external surface

The visceral pericardium

118

The potential space between the parietal and visceral pericardia; it contains serous fluid

Pericardial cavity

119

The right and left sides of the thoracic cavity contain the

Lungs, which are lined by a two-layered serous membrane called the pleura

120

The outer layer of the serous membrane of the lungs is called

The parietal pleura; it lines the internal surface of the thoracic wall

121

Inner layer of the serous membrane

Visceral pleura; it covers the external surface of the lung

122

Narrow, moist, potential space between the parietal and visceral layers is called the

Pleural cavity, and is the location of the lubricating serous fluid

123

The abdominopelvic cavity consists of

An abdominal cavity , which is superior to an imaginary line drawn between the superior aspects of the hip bones, and a pelvic cavity that is inferior to this line

124

The abdominal cavity contains most of the organs of

The digestive system, as well as the kidneys and ureters of the urinary system

125

The organs of the pelvic cavity consist of the

Distal part of the large intestine, the urinary bladder and urethra, and the internal reproductive organs

126

Moist, two-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity

Peritoneum

127

Outer layer of serous membrane, lines the internal walls of the abdominopelvic cavity

The parietal peritoneum

128

Inner layer of the serous membrane, ensheathes the external surfaces of most of the digestive organs

Visceral peritoneum

129

The potential space between serous membrane layers in the abdominopelvic cavity is the

Peritoneal cavity, where the lubricating serous fluid is located

130

In the larger abdominopelvic cavity There are nine compartments called abdominopelvic regions which are delineated by using two transverse planes and two sagittal planes, they are

* Epigastric region
* Umbilical region
* Hypogastric region
* Right and left hypochondria regions
* Right and left lumbar regions
* Right and left iliac regions

131

The epigastric region is

The superior region in the middle column, typically contains part of the liver, part of the stomach, the duodenum, part of the pancreas, and both adrenal glands

132

The umbilical region is

The middle region in the middle column, typically contains the transverse colon (middle part), part of the small intestine, and the branches of the blood vessels to the lower limbs

133

The hypogastric region is

The inferior region in the middle column, typically contains part of the small intestine, the urinary bladder, and the sigmoid colon of the large intestine

134

The right and left hypochondria regions are

The superior regions lateral to the epigastric region. The right hypochondriac region typically contains part of the liver, the gallbladder, and part of the right kidney; the left hypochondriac region typically contains part of the stomach, the spleen, the left colic flexure of the large intestine, and part of the left kidney

135

The right and left lumbar regions are

The middle regions lateral to the umbilical region. The right lumbar region typically contains the ascending colon and the right colic flexure of the large intestine, the superior part of the cecum, the part of the right kidney, and part of the small intestine; the left lumbar region contains the descending colon, part of the left kidney, and part of the small intestine

136

The right and left iliac regions are

The inferior regions lateral to the hypogastric region. The right iliac region typically contains the inferior end of the cecum, the appendix, and part of the small intestine; the left iliac region contains the junction of parts of the colon as well as part of the small intestine

137

What are the four quadrants

Imaginary transverse and midsagittal planes pass through the umbilicus to divide the abdominopelvic cavity into
*right upper quadrant (RUQ)
*left upper quadrant (LUQ)
*right lower quadrant (RLQ)
*left lower quadrant (LLQ)

138

Describe the cranial cavity and is serous membrane present?

Formed by cranium; houses brain. No serous membrane is present

139

Describe the vertebral canal and is serous membrane present?

Formed by vertebral column; contains spinal cord. No serous membrane is present

140

Describe mediastinum and is serous membrane present?

Contains the pericardial cavity, thymus, trachea, esophagus, and major blood vessels. No serous membrane

141

Describe the pericardial cavity and is serous membrane present?

Contains the heart. The serous membrane present is pericardium

142

Describe the pleural cavity and its serous membrane

Contains the lungs. The serous membrane is pleura

143

Describe the abdominal cavity and the serous membrane

Bordered superiorly by the diaphragm and inferiorly by a horizontal plane between the superior ridges of the hip bones. Associated with the abdominal viscera, including stomach, spleen, liver, pancreas, small intestine, most of large intestine, kidneys, ureters. The peritoneum serous membrane is present

144

Describe the pelvic cavity and the serous membrane present

Region located between the hip bones and interior to a horizontal plane between the superior ridges of the hip bones. Associated with the pelvic viscera, including urinary bladder and urethra, internal reproductive organs, some of large intestine. The peritoneum serous membrane is present

145

The four areas of the abdominopelvic cavity formed by passing one vertical and one horizontal plane through the umbilicus (navel)

Abdominopelvic quadrants

146

The nine areas in the abdominopelvic cavity formed by two transverse planes and two sagittal planes

Abdominopelvic regions

147

A diagnostic method that involves listening to the sounds produced by various body structures

Auscultation

148

State of equilibrium, or constant internal environment, in the body

Homeostasis

149

Using the hands to detect organs, masses, or infiltration of a body part during a physical examination

Palpation