Flashcards in Exam 2 extra questions Deck (48):
These neurons act as the decision-making cells to sum up all signals for certain stimuli
A sensory neuron of the peripheral nervous system take nerve impulses from sensory receptors to the
central nervous system
True or false: Nerve impulses go from sensory neurons in sense organs directly to the muscles and glands that respond
This neuron has short dendrites and a long or short axon
What are the main neurons of the spinal cord?
Schwann cells are the main neurons of the spinal cord
Schwann cells are one of several types of ________ cells in the nervous system
Multiple sclerosis is a disease of?
The myelin sheath
True or false: A nerve impulse is the way all neurons transmit information
The resting potential indicates that the inside of the neuron is ________ compared to the outside
The "sodium potassium pumps" pumps what?
The "sodium-potassium pump" pumps sodium ions out and potassium ions in
As the action potential swings down
Potassium ions move out of the axon
In humans, transmission of nerve impulses across a synaptic cleft is carried out by ________.
Transmission across a synapse is achieved mainly by a________ .
Diffusion of neurotransmitter across the cleft
The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves, which are neurons with cell bodies that occur in the?
Brain, spinal cord, or in ganglia
The PNS nerves are part of either the somatic system or the ________ .
The somatic system contains nerves that control _________.
The peripheral nervous system includes mixed nerves that _________.
Contain both sensory and motor fibers
The sensory neurons that come from internal organs send impulses to the CNS where reflex actions _____________.
Help maintain homeostasis
True or false: The sympathetic system inhibits the digestive tract, dilates the bronchi, and accelerates the heartbeat; it is associated with the "fight or flight" body response
True or false: The parasympathetic system causes the pupil to contract, promotes digestion of food, and retards the heartbeat
Higher thought processes for learning and memory are primarily in the ________.
The ________ contains centers for heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure
The medulla oblongata contains reflex centers for _______________.
Vomiting, coughing, sneezing, hiccuping, and swallowing
The main function of the cerebellum is ___________.
What is the biggest part of the brain?
Which part of the brain helps keep your balance so you don’t fall flat on your face?
Which part of the brain keeps you breathing?
The brain stem
The cerebellum, _______portion of the brain, is located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum.
the second largest
the third largest
The second largest
Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into lobes, ________ of which have the same name as the bone over them
Like other systems in the body, the nervous system is composed of organs, principally the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ____
When a muscle fiber contracts, what slides toward the center of each sarcomere?
the thin filaments of actin
Which functional division of the nervous system includes the SNS and ANS?
Which effectors are innervated by visceral motor neurons?
A) cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
B) somatic effectors other than skeletal muscle
C) skeletal muscle, skin, and joints
D) interneurons of the CNS
cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
Which pair names only neuroglia of the central nervous system?
A) astrocytes and interneurons
B) ependymal cells and astrocytes
C) microglia and neurolemmocytes
D) oligodendrocytes and satellite cells
Ependymal cells and astrocytes
Which description refers to oligodendrocytes?
A) small cells with slender branches from the cell body
B) large, star-shaped cells with numerous cell processes
C) large, bulbous cells with slender cytoplasmic extensions
D) flattened cells wrapped around axons to form myelin
Large, bulbous cells with slender cytoplasmic extensions
Which types of glial cells are found in the peripheral nervous system?
A) oligodendrocytes and astrocytes
B) microglia and ependymal cells
C) neurolemmocytes and satellite cells
D) all of the above
neurolemmocytes and satellite cells
The synaptic knob of a neuron may contact another neuron anywhere except on its
B) cell body
C) myelin sheath
D) synaptic knob
Which one of the following is not a step in the conduction of a nerve impulse across a chemical synapse?
A) the nerve impulse causes an influx of Ca2+ ions into the synaptic knob
B) calcium ions entering the synaptic cleft cause the endocytosis of synaptic vesicles
C) neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft to the postsynaptic cell
D) a voltage change in the postsynaptic cell triggers a nerve impulse to begin there
calcium ions entering the synaptic cleft cause the endocytosis of synaptic vesicles
What accounts for the gray color of gray matter?
A) presence of Nissl bodies
B) absence of myelin
C) both of the above
D) neither of the above
Both of the above
In the PNS, an axon may be enveloped by ____________ without being ____________.
A) neurolemmocytes; myelinated
B) oligodendrocytes; myelinated
C) satellite cells; in a ganglion
D) endoneurium; in a nerve
Which glial cells participate in the repair of damaged nerves?
A) satellite and ependymal cells
D) astrocytes and microglia
Which nervous system divisions or components contain no afferent neurons?
A) somatic and visceral sensory
B) CNS and PNS
C) PNS and ANS
D) ANS and SNS
ANS and SNS
Ironically, a ____________ neuron typically has more dendrites than a ____________ neuron.
A) bipolar; multipolar
B) unipolar; multipolar
C) unipolar; bipolar
D) sensory; multipolar
A multipolar neuron that synapses on a gland cell is functionally classified as
A) a visceral motor neuron
B) a somatic motor neuron
C) a sensory neuron
D) an interneuron
A visceral motor neuron
At a chemical synapse, ____________ are found only in the plasma membrane of the ____________ cell.
A) neurotransmitters; postsynaptic
B) receptor proteins; postsynaptic
C) neurotransmitters; presynaptic
D) receptor proteins; presynaptic
Receptor proteins; postsynaptic
With regard to control of effectors, ____________ is to involuntary as ____________ is to voluntary.
A) somatic; visceral
B) somatic; peripheral
C) autonomic; somatic
D) central; peripheral
Sensory neurons in which of the following locations receive and transmit only visceral input?
(1) skin (2) joints (3) heart (4) fascia (5) stomach
A) 1 and 2
B) 3 and 5
C) 3, 4, and 5
3 & 5