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Flashcards in Exam 2 extra questions Deck (48):
1

These neurons act as the decision-making cells to sum up all signals for certain stimuli

Interneurons

2

A sensory neuron of the peripheral nervous system take nerve impulses from sensory receptors to the

central nervous system

3

True or false: Nerve impulses go from sensory neurons in sense organs directly to the muscles and glands that respond

False

4

This neuron has short dendrites and a long or short axon

Interneuron

5

What are the main neurons of the spinal cord?

Schwann cells are the main neurons of the spinal cord

6

Schwann cells are one of several types of ________ cells in the nervous system

neuroglial

7

Multiple sclerosis is a disease of?

The myelin sheath

8

True or false: A nerve impulse is the way all neurons transmit information

True

9

The resting potential indicates that the inside of the neuron is ________ compared to the outside

Negative

10

The "sodium potassium pumps" pumps what?

The "sodium-potassium pump" pumps sodium ions out and potassium ions in

11

As the action potential swings down

Potassium ions move out of the axon

12

In humans, transmission of nerve impulses across a synaptic cleft is carried out by ________.

neurotransmitter molecules

13

Transmission across a synapse is achieved mainly by a________ .

Diffusion of neurotransmitter across the cleft

14

The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves, which are neurons with cell bodies that occur in the?

Brain, spinal cord, or in ganglia

15

The PNS nerves are part of either the somatic system or the ________ .

Autonomic system

16

The somatic system contains nerves that control _________.

Skeletal muscles

17

The peripheral nervous system includes mixed nerves that _________.

Contain both sensory and motor fibers

18

The sensory neurons that come from internal organs send impulses to the CNS where reflex actions _____________.

Help maintain homeostasis

19

True or false: The sympathetic system inhibits the digestive tract, dilates the bronchi, and accelerates the heartbeat; it is associated with the "fight or flight" body response

True

20

True or false: The parasympathetic system causes the pupil to contract, promotes digestion of food, and retards the heartbeat

True

21

Higher thought processes for learning and memory are primarily in the ________.

Cerebrum

22

The ________ contains centers for heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure

Medulla oblongata

23

The medulla oblongata contains reflex centers for _______________.

Vomiting, coughing, sneezing, hiccuping, and swallowing

24

The main function of the cerebellum is ___________.

Muscle coordination

25

What is the biggest part of the brain?

The Cerebrum

26

Which part of the brain helps keep your balance so you don’t fall flat on your face?

Cerebellum

27

Which part of the brain keeps you breathing?

The brain stem

28

The cerebellum, _______portion of the brain, is located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum.
the largest
the second largest
the third largest
the smallest

The second largest

29

Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into lobes, ________ of which have the same name as the bone over them

Five, four

30

Like other systems in the body, the nervous system is composed of organs, principally the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ____

Ganglia

31

When a muscle fiber contracts, what slides toward the center of each sarcomere?

the thin filaments of actin

32

Which functional division of the nervous system includes the SNS and ANS?
A) sensory
B) motor
C) central
D) peripheral

Motor

33

Which effectors are innervated by visceral motor neurons?
A) cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
B) somatic effectors other than skeletal muscle
C) skeletal muscle, skin, and joints
D) interneurons of the CNS

cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands

34


Which pair names only neuroglia of the central nervous system?
A) astrocytes and interneurons
B) ependymal cells and astrocytes
C) microglia and neurolemmocytes
D) oligodendrocytes and satellite cells

Ependymal cells and astrocytes

35

Which description refers to oligodendrocytes?
A) small cells with slender branches from the cell body
B) large, star-shaped cells with numerous cell processes
C) large, bulbous cells with slender cytoplasmic extensions
D) flattened cells wrapped around axons to form myelin

Large, bulbous cells with slender cytoplasmic extensions

36

Which types of glial cells are found in the peripheral nervous system?
A) oligodendrocytes and astrocytes
B) microglia and ependymal cells
C) neurolemmocytes and satellite cells
D) all of the above

neurolemmocytes and satellite cells

37


The synaptic knob of a neuron may contact another neuron anywhere except on its
A) dendrites
B) cell body
C) myelin sheath
D) synaptic knob

Myelin sheath

38

Which one of the following is not a step in the conduction of a nerve impulse across a chemical synapse?
A) the nerve impulse causes an influx of Ca2+ ions into the synaptic knob
B) calcium ions entering the synaptic cleft cause the endocytosis of synaptic vesicles
C) neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft to the postsynaptic cell
D) a voltage change in the postsynaptic cell triggers a nerve impulse to begin there

calcium ions entering the synaptic cleft cause the endocytosis of synaptic vesicles

39

What accounts for the gray color of gray matter?
A) presence of Nissl bodies
B) absence of myelin
C) both of the above
D) neither of the above

Both of the above

40

In the PNS, an axon may be enveloped by ____________ without being ____________.
A) neurolemmocytes; myelinated
B) oligodendrocytes; myelinated
C) satellite cells; in a ganglion
D) endoneurium; in a nerve

Neurolemmocytes; myelinated

41

Which glial cells participate in the repair of damaged nerves?
A) satellite and ependymal cells
B) neurolemmocytes
C) oligodendrocytes
D) astrocytes and microglia

Neurolemmocytes

42

Which nervous system divisions or components contain no afferent neurons?
A) somatic and visceral sensory
B) CNS and PNS
C) PNS and ANS
D) ANS and SNS

ANS and SNS

43


Ironically, a ____________ neuron typically has more dendrites than a ____________ neuron.
A) bipolar; multipolar
B) unipolar; multipolar
C) unipolar; bipolar
D) sensory; multipolar

Unipolar; Bipolar

44


A multipolar neuron that synapses on a gland cell is functionally classified as
A) a visceral motor neuron
B) a somatic motor neuron
C) a sensory neuron
D) an interneuron

A visceral motor neuron

45

At a chemical synapse, ____________ are found only in the plasma membrane of the ____________ cell.
A) neurotransmitters; postsynaptic
B) receptor proteins; postsynaptic
C) neurotransmitters; presynaptic
D) receptor proteins; presynaptic

Receptor proteins; postsynaptic

46

With regard to control of effectors, ____________ is to involuntary as ____________ is to voluntary.
A) somatic; visceral
B) somatic; peripheral
C) autonomic; somatic
D) central; peripheral

Autonomic; somatic

47


Sensory neurons in which of the following locations receive and transmit only visceral input?
(1) skin (2) joints (3) heart (4) fascia (5) stomach
A) 1 and 2
B) 3 and 5
C) 3, 4, and 5

3 & 5

48


Touch, vibration, and proprioception are examples of
A) special visceral senses
B) general visceral senses
C) special somatic senses
D) general somatic senses

General somatic senses