Flashcards in Final exam part two Deck (101):
Connected to canaliculi by fine bile ductules
The bile duct is
A long tube-like structure that connects the liver to the intestine. The bile from the liver is transported to the intestine by the bile duct.
Collect bile from ducts of the liver lobes
Right & left hepatic ducts
Gallstones are when
Bile becomes too concentrated so crystals of insoluble materials results
Concentrates bile produced by the liver & stores this concentrate until it is needed for digestion.
The _____ connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct
Phagocytic cells of the liver are
Reticuloendothelial cells or Kupffer cells. They have an immune function
What does the liver do to bilirubin?
Liver cells take in bilirubin and attach sugar molecules to it. This is then called 'conjugated' bilirubin which is passed into the bile ducts
A chemical gives bile its yellow/green colour. A high level of bilirubin in your blood will make you jaundiced ('yellow')
A waxy substance produced by the liver and found in certain foods, is needed to make vitamin D and some hormones, build cell walls, and create bile salts that help you digest fat
Typically contains two layers of smooth muscle
Epithelium lining small intestine
Contains dense irregular connective tissue & blood vessels
Lymphatic nodules in wall of ileum
Attaches liver to anterior abdominal wall
Restricts chyme entry into small intestine
Epithelium lining esophagus
Sacs of large intestine wall
Increase surface area of small intestine
Process to mix digested materials in small intestine
The ____ cells of the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid (HCI)
Material leaving the ascending colon next enters the
The main pancreatic duct merges with the ____.
Common bile duct
True or false: Pancreatic juice is responsible for emulsifying (breaking down) fats
The "living" part of a tooth is the
Most of the chemical digestion of our food occurs within the
What initial stages of digestion occur in the oral cavity?
Mastication (the action of chewing and mechanically breaking down food) triggers you're exocrine glands to excret a watery liquid called saliva. Mechanical & chemical.
Anatomy of the circular folds of the small intestine
Circular folds of mucosa & submucosa.
What are the teniae coli & hausfrau, & how are they associated?
The teniae coli are three separate longitudinal ribbons of smooth muscle on the outside of the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colons. They are visible, and can be seen just below the serosa or fibrosa. The teniae coli contract lengthwise to produce the haustra, the bulges in the colon
What is the function of the gallbladder and what role does it play in digestion?
The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, and then releases it into the duodenum to help absorb and digest fats
How is the urinary system involved in regulation of blood volume to the kidneys?
The kidneys control volume of interstitial fluid & blood under the direction of certain hormones. Changes in blood volume affect blood pressure, so the kidneys indirectly affect blood flow.
Anatomy of Villi in the small intestine
Fingerlike projections of mucosa
Anatomy of microvilli in the small intestine.
Folded, fingerlike projections of plasma membrane on apical surface of columnar epithelial cells
Histology of the mucosa
Has 3 components; 1) An inner (superficial) epithelium lining the lumen of the GI tract 2) An underlying areolar connective tissue (lamina propria
3) Thin layer of smooth muscle (muscularis mucosae
Histology of submucosa
Composed of either areolar or dense irregular connective tissue & has fewer cells than the lamina propria. Components include; lymphatic tissue, mucin-secreting glands that project ducts across the mucosa & open into the lumen of the tract in the esophagus & duodenum; blood vessels, lymph vessels nerves that extend fine branches into mucosa & muscularis
Histology of muscularis
Contains two layers of smooth muscle. Exceptions to this pattern include the esophagus & the stomach. Makes a sphincter.
Histology of Adventitia or serosa
Adventitia is composed of areolar connective tissue w/ dispersed collagen & elastic fibers.
Serosa has same components as adventitia but is covered by a visceral peritoneum
What are the specific features of the stomach tunic?
Contains 3 layers of smooth muscle
Renal fascia of the urinary system is
External to the perinephric fat & is composed of dense irregular connective tissue. It anchors the kidney to the posterior abdominal wall & peritoneum
Kidneys primary function is
To filter the blood
Blood is carried to the kidneys in a
Renal artery, segmental arteries branch from the renal artery w/in the renal sinus. They further branch to interlobar arteries, then arcuate arteries, then interlobular arteries, then afferent arterioles, glomerulus, then efferent arterioles then peritubular capillaries and vasa recta then to interlobular veins, to arcuate veins, to interlobar veins to the renal vein.
Blood filtration in the kidneys occurs
At the glomerulus, & the blood remains highly oxygenated until it reaches the peritubular capillaries and vasa recta, where exchange of gases occurs
The functional filtration unit in the kidney is the
What makes up the renal tubule?
The proximal convuluted tubule, nephron loop, & distal convuluted tubule
Two types of nephrons are
Cortical nephrons & juxtamedullary nephrons
Approximately 85% of nephrons are of this type because the bulk of the nephron resides solely in the cortex, & their relatively short nephron loops barely penetrate the medulla
Their renal corpuscles lie close to the corticomedullary junction, & their long nephron loops extend deep into the medulla. The vasa recta are associated with juxtamedullary nephrons
Filtrate of the urinary system is
Water & it's dissolved solutes.
Tubular reabsorption of the urinary system occurs when
Substances in the filtrate move by diffusion or active transport across the wall of the renal tubules to return to the blood. All needed solutes & most water that formed filtrate are reabsorbed by the blood. As reabsorption occurs, some excess solutes, water, & waste products remain within the tubular fluid
When does filtrate become tubular fluid?
Once filtrate begins to be modified
Tubular secretion is
The active transport of solutes out of the blood into the tubular fluid.
Once the tubular fluid exits the collecting duct, it is called?
Urine consists of
Solutes & water that have been filtered as filtrate & secreted into the tubular fluid
Specialized cells of the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule. They have long processes called pedicels.
Long feet processes that wrap around the glomerular capillaries to support the capillary wall but not completely ensheath it.
Filtration slits are
Separate the pedicles. Allow materials from the blood plasma to pass into the capsular space
Fenestrated capillaries are
Glomerular capillaries are fenestrated capillaries. They have fenestrations or pores that allow materials to be filtered
Function of the tall microvilli of the proximal convoluted tubule
Increase its reabsorption capacity.
What are the thick and thin descending loop?
The descending limp is first lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium (thick descending limp) and then a simple squamous epithelium (thin descending limb)
What is the thick and thin ascending loop?
The ascending loop is first lined with a simple squamous epithelium (thin ascending limb) then by a simple cuboidal epithelium (thick ascending limb)
Primary function of the nephron loop?
To facilitate reabsorption of water & solutes from the tubular fluid
Primary function of the distal convoluted tubule?
Secrete ions such as potassium (K+) & hydrogen (H+) into the tubular fluid. Reabsorption of water under the influence of ADH & Aldosterone
(Adrenal cortex) Secreted in response to low blood volume or low solute concentration in the tubular fluid w/in the kidney. Cause the distal convuluted tubule cells to increase water & sodium reabsorption from tubular fluid
(Posterior pituitary) Secreted in response to low blood volume or low solute concentration in the tubular fluid w/in the kidney. Cause the distal convuluted tubule cells to increase water & sodium reabsorption from tubular fluid
Juxtaglomerular apparatus is
Components are juxtaglomerular cells & a macula dense. These structures work together to regulate blood pressure.
Juxtaglomerular cells are
Modified smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole located near the entrance to the renal corpuscle.
The macula densa is
A group of modified epithelial cells in a distal convoluted tubule that touch the juxtaglomerular cells. Continuously monitor ion concentration in tubular fluid. Detect change & stimulate the juxtaglomerular cells to release renin
Renin activates what?
The renin-angiotensin pathway, resulting in aldosterone production, which causes increases in blood ion concentrations & blood volume
Mucosal folds. Allow for even greater dissension.
Detrusor muscle is
Three layers of smooth muscles in the muscularis. These smooth muscle bundles exhibit such complex orientations
Internal urethral sphincter is
At the neck of the urinary bladder. Involuntary, formed by the smooth muscle that encircles the urethral opening
Involuntary, superior sphincter surrounding the neck of the bladder, where the urethra originates. This sphincter is circular thickening of the detrusor muscle & is controlled by the autonomic nervous system
Internal urethral sphincter
The external urethral sphincter is
Inferior to the internal urethral sphincter & is formed by skeletal muscle fibers of the urogenital diaphragm. Voluntary controlled by the somatic nervous system
The kidney has a concave medial border called the hilum. Vessels, nerves, & the ureter connect to the kidney here. Continuous with the renal sinus.
Kidney stones are
Also called a renal calculus, formed from crystalline minerals that build up in the kidney. The minerals can condense to form hard, rocky structures.
The expulsion of urine from the bladder, also called urination. Initiated by a complex sequence of events called the micturition reflex.
Stretch receptors of the urinary system
When your bladder is about half full, the stretch receptors in the walls of your bladder become active and send signals along your pelvic nerves to your spinal cord.
A reflex signal is sent back to your bladder, which makes the detrusor muscle in the bladder wall contract. The contraction increases the pressure in your bladder, and this is what makes you want to pass urine.
Because the external sphincter is under voluntary control, you don’t urinate until you decide to relax this muscle.
Most secretion occurs in this nephron segment
Distal convoluted tubule
Expels urine outside the body
Conducts urine from kidney to bladder
Vessels involved in reabsorption
Site of plasma filtration
Conducts blood out of the glomerulus
Stores urine until it is voided
Structural units that constitute the medulla
Location of renal corpuscle
Major calcyes empty into this funnel-shaped region
Which organ is responsible for filtering the blood?
True or false: The bladder is lined with transitional epithelium
Tubular fluid from the proximal convoluted tubule next travels to the
The apex of a renal pyramid is called the renal
True or false: The cortex is subdivided into renal pyramids
Urine in a major calyx of the kidney next travels to the
Reabsorption is the movement of fluid & solutes from the
Tubular fluid into the peritubular capillaries
The micturition reflex controls
Voided of the filled bladder
What are the basic functions of the urinary system?
Filters the blood, transports & stores urine, excretes urine, helps maintain blood volume, & regulates erythrocyte production
Describe the connective tissue coverings that surround the kidney, from internal to external. Why are these coverings important to kidney structure & function?
Fibrous capsule, perinephric fat, renal fascia, & paranephric fat.
Map the flow of blood into & out of the kidney. List which structures carry O2 blood & which carry deoxygentated blood. List structures responsible for gas exchange & reabsorption of materials from the filtrate
Renal artery(Oxygenated blood)>Segmental artery>Interlobar artery>Arcuate artery>Interlobular artery>Afferent arterioles>Glomerulus>Efferent arterioles>Peritubular capillaries & vasa recta(gas exchange, reabsorption of materials)>Interlobular vein(deoxygenated blood) >Arcuate vein>Interlobar vein>Renal vein
What prevents urine stored in the urinary bladder from being forced back through the ureters to the kidney?
Internal urethral sphincter
Trace the course of fluid movement, beginning with the production of filtrate in the renal corpuscle & ending with the expulsion of urine from the urethra
Nephron>Renal corpuslce>Glomerular>Glomerulus>Renal tubule>Proximal convoluted tubule>Nephron loop>Descending loop>Ascending loop>Distal convoluted tubule>Collecting duct> Renal pyramid>Renal papillae>Minor calyx>Major calyx>Renal pelvis> Ureter>Urinary bladder>Trigone>Internal sphincter
Urethra>External sphincter> Urethral orifice
Prostatic urethra>External sphincter>Membranous urethra>Penile urethra>Urethral orifice