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Flashcards in Lecture 3 notes Deck (22):
1

The glands of the skin are

1) Merocrine (eccrine) gland
2) Holocrine gland
3) Apocrine gland

2

The merocrine (eccrine) gland

Most common; cell loses no structure (goblet cells, salivary glands, sweat glands)

3

The holocrine gland

Cell death occurs when it bursts; basal cells undergo mitosis to replace cells (sebaceous glands)

4

The apocrine gland

Base of cell remains intact while apical end pinches off with small amount of cytoplasm (mammory glands, prostate)

5

Two kinds of sweat glands

1) Merocrine
2) Apocrine

6

Describe merocrine glands

*Throughout the body, the highest numbers are on the soles of our feet and the palms of our hands
*watery sweat
*ducts empty onto free skin surface

7

Describe the apocrine sweat gland

*less numerous
*larger
*found only in axillae, groin, and areolae (nipples)
*ducts often empty into hair follicles
*possible pheromones

8

Sebaceous glands produce

An oily sebum that provides lubrication for hair, moisture for skin & inhibits bacterial growth

9

Ceruminous glands are

A modified sweat gland in the ear canal.

10

Mammory glands are

*Modified "apocrine" sweat gland
*Secretion is true apocrine

11

Nails grow from?

The nail root which lies under the eponychium (cuticle)

12

Functions of the skeleton are

* Support & lever action (for movement)
* Protect organs (skull, ribs)
* Blood cell production (RBC's, WBC's)
* Stores calcium (Ca++ needed by all cells especially muscle cells)

13

Bone is dynamic, it can

Grow, repair, thickens & undergoes atrophy

14

The sesamoid bone are

Small, round & flat bones that form within tendons, highly variable from individual to individual except for the patella

15

Flat bones have

Two parallel plates of compact bone with a thin layer of spongy bone sandwiched in between them

16

Mesenchyme is

Star shaped cells; they are stem cells that give rise to all connective tissue

17

Osteoprogenitor is

*From mesenchyme (usually in the endosteum)
*Can divide and differentiate into osteoblasts
*Differentiate during bone formation & after bone fracture

18

Fibroblast

*produce all connective tissue fibers
*collagen, reticular & elastic fibers

19

Chondoblast are

Cartilage forming cells

20

Chondrocytes are

Encased chondroblasts

21

Main points of osteoblasts

*Bone forming cells
*Secrete osteoid (organic bone matrix)
*Osteocyte (encased osteoblast)
*Mature bone cells occupying lacunae (maintains bone)

22

Main points of osteoclasts

*Bone destroying cells
*Giant, multinucleate (fused bone marrow stem cells)
*Contain lysosomes
*Secrete HCI
*Dissolve bone matrix (osteolysis)
*Frees Ca++ into blood