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Flashcards in Lecture 2 notes Deck (55):
1

With a light microscope you can mostly see 3 things

1) Plasma membrane
2) Nucleus (DNA region)
3) Cytoplasm

2

Types of movement through the plasma membrane

Passive movement and Active movement

3

For passive movement

-Does not require cell energy
-Moves from higher to lower concentration

4

For active movement

-Uses cell energy (ATP)
-Can move molecules against the gradient

5

Types of passive movement

-Diffusion
-Osmosis
_Facilitated diffusion

6

Diffusion is

Simple movement from hight to low concentration

7

Osmosis is

Movement of water from high to low water concentration

8

Facilitated diffusion is

Specific molecules attach to proteins and then diffuse

9

The nucleus is

The control center-houses genetic information (includes nucleolus and chromatin)

10

The endoplasmic reticulum comes in two ways

Rough and Smooth

11

Smooth ER

Synthesis of lipids, steroids & few carbohydrates. Stores Ca++

12

Rough ER

-Presence of ribosomes makes it rough
-Assembly line for proteins

13

The golgi apparatus

The golgi bodies or apparatus puts on the finishing touches, and packages molecules

14

There are two types of vesicles

Secretory and transport vesicles

15

The lysosomes

Arise from the Golgi and carry digestive enzymes to destroy old organelles or pathogens (bacteria or virus)
-suicide organelle

16

The mitochondria

-Two membranes (outer & a folded inner)
-Have own DNA & can reproduce
-Functions as the cells "powerhouse" converting food materials into molecules of ATP
-ATP is the molecules that supplies energy directly to a cell
-Mitochondrial DNA comes from our mother not father

17

Ribosomes, the non-membranous organelles are

Responsible for protein synthesis (doesn't make proteins, just helps).
Could be either stuck on rough ER or free-floating

18

When a chromosome enters cell division, it has already what and why?

Duplicated, so when it condenses you will see two copies. Each copy is called a chromatid, and each "sister" chromatid is attached at the centromere

19

We know when a cell is entering mitosis by

Looking through a microscope and see chromosomes

20

When chromosomes are condensed they are called

Chromatids

21

The 4 tissues are

1) Epithelial tissue
2) Connective tissue
3) Muscle tissue
4) Nervous tissue

22

The cell cycle is abbreviated into what

IPMAT

23

Epithelial tissue is classified by layers & shapes which are

Layers
*Simple= one layer of cells
*Stratified= more than one layer of cells
Shapes
*Squamous= Flat shaped cells
*Square or cubed= Cuboidal
*Rectangular= Columnar

24

Simple squamous

Lining of blood vessels; lung air sac (alveoli) lining; thin sections kidney tubules
-very thin & delicate lining; moist
-allows diffusion of nutrients, gases & wastes

25

Stratified squamous

-Skin epidermis
-Keratinized and non-keratinized
keratin is a protein that waterproofs & adds protection

26

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

Respiratory tract, parts of the male reproductive tract.
*false illusion of being stratified, but it's only one cell layer thick

27

Connective tissue are cells living...?

In a non-living matrix

28

Connective tissue is composed of

-Cells: various types (i.e. osteocytes, mast cells)
-Intercellular matrix: protein & carbohydrates
-Protein fibers:
*Collagen-most common, thick, strong
*Elastic-farily rare, thin, can stretch & recoil
*Recticular- like collagen but more random

29

Specialized connective tissue

Cartilage: chondrocytes are the living cells; matrix is protein fibers; cartilage is avascular
3 types of cartilage- Elastic, fibrocartilage, hyaline

30

Bone

Cell=osteocyte;
Matrix=calcium phosphate + collagen fibers

31

Two types of bones

Spongy and compact bone

32

Compact bone=

Unit=osteon

33

What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?

1) Skeletal muscle
2) Smooth muscle
3) Cardiac muscle

34

Skeletal muscle

-Body muscles
-Very large fused muscle cells (many peripheral nuclei)
-Striations (bands)

35

Smooth muscle

-Blood vessels; digestive, respiratory, urinary & reproductive organs
-Spindle-shaped cells with single nuclei. No striations

36

Cardiac muscle

-Heart muscle; branched, single nuclei
-striations
-intercalated discs

37

Two types of nervous tissue

1) Neurons: cells that conduct nerve impulses
2) Neuroglia: Cells that support neuron function

38

What are the 5 functions of the integumentary system

1) Barrier protection: trauma, chemicals, water loss, pathogens, UV radiation, etc.
2) Sense reception: touch, pressure, pain, temperature
3) Excretion: H2O, electrolytes, some drugs
4) Nutritional: Vitamin D converted to Vit. D3 in skin by UV before liver/kidneys can modify it to active form
5) Homeostasis: Body temp. regulation

39

What are the 3 type of skin layers?

1) Epidermis
2) Dermis
3) Hypodermis

40

Epidermis

(from ectoderm) 4-5 layers of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium



41

Dermis

(From mesoderm): areolar & dense irregular connective tissue; blood and nerve supply

42

Hypodermis

(from mesoderm): areolar & adipose tissue
-also called the subcutaneous layer
-adipose connective tissue
-allows independent movement of skin from underlying structure
-padding
-thermal insulation

43

Skin color is

Mainly due to melanin a yellow-brown to black pigment produced, stored & released by melanocytes (found in stratum basale). Melanin absorbs UV radiation

44

Accessory structure: Hair

Provides skull protection, some insulation & delicate touch sensation.
*Epidermal structure that has sunk deep into the dermis.
*The hair papilla (blood supply) is the only dermal structure
*The hair itself is made up of keratin

45

What causes goose bumps?

Small smooth arrector pili muscles cause "goose bumps" & hairs to stand on end when the body is cold or when frightened

46

Glandular secretion for merocrine (eccrine)

Most common; secretory cells release vesicles with product by exocytosis (goblet cells, salivary glands, sweat glands)

47

Glandular secretion for holocrine

Cell death occurs after cells become filled with product and burst; basal cells must continue to undergo cell cycles to replace lysed cells (sebaceous glands)

48

Glandular secretion for Apocrine

Base of cell with nucleus & Golgi apparatus remain intact but the apical end loses some cytoplasm when product pinches off (mammary glands, prostate)

49

What are the 2 kinds of sweat glands?

1) Merocrine (eccrine)
2) Apocrine

50

The merocrine (eccrine) sweat glands are found

Throughout the body (highest #'s on palms & soles); watery sweat; ducts empty onto free skin surface

51

The apocrine sweat glands are less

Numerous but larger sweat glands are found only in axillae, groin & areolae (nipples). Ducts empty into hair follicles in pubic regions.

52

Sebaceous glands produce

An oily sebum that provides lubrication for hair, moisture of skin & inhibits bacterial growth

53

Modified sweat gland in the ear canal

Ceruminous glands

54

Mammory glands

-Modified "apocrine" sweat gland
-Secretion is apocrine

55

Accessory structure; Nails

Nail grows from the nail root which lies way under the eponychium (cuticle)