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Flashcards in Final exam part four Deck (68):
1

Labia minora are

Paired folds immediately internal to the labia major. Devoid of hair & contain a highly vascular layer of areolar connective tissue. Sebaceous glands are located in these folds, & numerous melanocytes, resulting in enhanced pigmentation of the folds

2

Function of spiral mitochondria in a sperm cell

The mitochondris is there to store and produce energy for the sperm. They carry out aerobic respiration that produce energy in the form of ATP molecules ( Adenosine triphosphate). These are important in helping the sperm remain motile so it can have sufficient energy to reach the oviduct/ fallopian tube, where it will fertilize the egg. The flagella is vital in enabling the mobility.

3

Hymen of the female is

A vascularized, membranous barrier. Typically is perforated during the first instance of sexual intercourse, also may be perforated by tampon use, medical exams, or very strenuous physical activity

4

GnRH stimulates the release of?

LH & FSH

5

Triggers follicle to rupture releasing the oocyte, triggers development of corpus luteum, released from pituitary gland

LH

6

Ovulation occurs at approximately which day of a 28 day ovarian cycle?

Day 14

7

What is the function of luteinizing hormone (LH) & Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)?

Stimulate oocytes to develop & ovaries to release estrogen & progesterone

8

Uterine ostium is

The uterine opening of the oviduct

9

Gubernaculums is

A mesenchymal column of tissue that connects the fetal testis to the developing scrotum and that is involved in testicular descent

10

A condition in which one or both of the testes fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum

Cryptorchidism

11

The surgical cutting and sealing of part of each vas deferens, typically as a means of sterilization

Vasectomy

12

The labioscrotal fold are

Lateral folds at either side of the embryonic cloacal membrane that develop into either the scrotum or the labia majora

13

Retroperitoneal means

Situated or occurring behind the peritoneum

14

Exocrine glands of the digestive system are responsible for

The release of digestive fluids. Secrete into ducts. Has a duct portion and a glandular portion. At the end of each branch is an acinus formed at secretory cells of two types: serous cells (which secrete proteins such as enzymes), and mucous cells (which secrete mucus).

15

Genital turbercle is

A conical protuberance on the belly wall of an embryo between the attachment of the umbilical cord and the tail that develops into the penis in the male and the clitoris in the female

16

Urogenital folds are derived from the

Cloacal folds; in male embryos, they close over the urethral plate and fuse to form the spongy urethra and ventral aspect of the penis; in female embryos, the unfused urogenital folds develop into the labia minora

17

A temporary organ that joins the mother and fetus, transferring oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and permitting the release of carbon dioxide and waste products from the fetus.

Placenta

18

Phenotypic sex refers to

The appearance of an individual's internal & external genitalia. Starts to become apparent no earlier than the 7th week of development

19

Genetic sex refers to the

Sex of an individual based on her or his sex chromosomes. An individual with two x chromosomes is a genetic female, male is x & one y. Determined at fertilization.

20

Urethral orifice is

External opening of the urethra, from which urine is ejected during urination

21

Male gland that produces testosterone & sperm cells

Testes

22

From the epididymus sperm cells move into the?

Ductus deferens

23

Produce oocytes that are released into the pelvic cavity of a female

Ovaries

24

Gonad of the female reproductive system

Ovary

25

What produces oocytes in a process known as oogenesis?

Ovary

26

When oocytes are mature they are released from the ovary by?

Ovulation

27

Development of the oocytes begins during _____ _____ of the female, but they remain as ______ ______ until _______.

Fetal development
Primary oocytes
Puberty

28

Once the secondary oocyte is ovulated and if it is fertilized what does it become?

Ovum

29

If fertilization does not occur the corpus luteum develops into

Corpus albicans

30

Changes in the endometrium

Menstrual cycle

31

Changes in the ovary

Ovarian cycle

32

Once fertilization occurs, the oocyte & the sperm unite to become a

Zygote

33

The zygote divides during which stage and what does it form?

Pre-embryonic stage & forms a two-celled stage

34

Once the zygote divides into a two-celled stage what happens next?

They go through numerous divisions and are called blastomeres

35

The two blastomeres divide and become what?

Four cells, this process continues until a cluster of cells (16-32 of them) is formed called a morula

36

As division continues the cluster of cells (morula) becomes a hollow ball of cells called a?

Blastocyst

37

IPMAT

Interphase
Prophase
Mitotic phase
Anaphase
Telophase

38

Interphase

Not a stage of mitosis but a part of the cell cycle. Normal activities no noticeable change. Chromosomes NOT visible

39

Prophase

Chromatin threads appear, chromatids visible, nuclear envelope disappears, centrioles move toward opposing cell poles.

40

Metaphase

Chromosomes line up in middle, microtubules attach to centromeres of chromosomes

41

Anaphase

Sister chromatids pulled apart to opposite ends of the cell

42

Telophase

Two new cells begin to form as a cleavage furrow divides the cytoplasm, nuclear envelope reappears

43

Centromere is

A constricted region that joins two sister chromatids

44

Chromatids are

The two strands joined together by a single centromere, formed from the duplication of the chromosome during the early stages of cell division and then separate to become individual chromosomes during the late stages of cell division

45

Meiosis I

Meiosis I encompasses four stages: prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I and telophase I

46

Meiosis is

Meiosis is a two-part cell division process that produces sex cells with one half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. There are two stages or phases of meiosis: meiosis I and meiosis II. At the end of the meiotic process, four daughter cells are produced

47

Meiosis II

Meiosis II is the second part of the meiotic process. Much of the process is similar to mitosis and meiosis I

48

Prophase I

Chromotid threads begin to twist and condense, creating chromosomal structures which are visible to the microscope. Each chromosome then actively seeks out its homologous chromosome & becomes 4 chromatids

49

Metaphase II

The chromosomes become arranged on the metaphase plate, much as the chromosomes do in mitosis, and are attached to the now fully formed spindle

50

Homologous pairs are

A chromosomes that exist in diploid cells. One of the pair you inherit from your father, the other from your mother. A human has 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes (these do not include sex chromosomes)

51

Reduction division is

Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms; the nucleus divides into four nuclei each containing half the chromosome number

52

A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.

Chromosome

53

Deoxyribonucleic acid. It is located in the nuclei of cells, which make up the body. Consequently, DNA can be considered as one of the building blocks of the body. In chromosomes

DNA

54

Gamete production

Produced by a type of meiosis (cell division). They are haploid (contain one set of chromosomes). When the haploid male and female gametes unite (fertilization), they form a zygote. The zygote is diploid and contains two sets of chromosomes

55

The cap (formed from the corpus spongiosum) over the distal end of the penis is the?

Glans

56

__________ , which is secreted by the placenta, stimulates the synthesis and secretion of testosterone before birth

HCG

57

In the male, the process in which sperm cells, secretions of the prostate, and secretions of the seminal vesicles accumulate in the prostatic urethra is called

Emission

58

The layer of clear, viscous fluid that is deposited around a primary oocyte is the

Zona Pellucida

59

The funnel-shaped end of the uterine tube (fallopian tube) is the

Infundibulum

60

The large, superior, rounded portion of the uterus is the

Fundus

61

Which of these layers is shed during menses?

Functional layer of endometrium

62

During the menstrual cycle, the time between the ending of menses and ovulation is called the

Follicular phase

63

The hormone responsible for ovulation is

LH

64

In the menstrual cycle, progesterone levels are highest during

The secretory phase

65

A woman with a typical 28-day menstrual cycle is most likely to become pregnant from sexual intercourse occurring on days

9-14

66

While the follicle is developing, a positive-feedback loop occurs in which __________ stimulates the follicle, which increases the secretion of __________, which stimulates GnRH secretion

FSH, estrogen

67

After fertilization, development of a full-term fetus depends upon

release of HCG by the trophoblast to maintain the corpus luteum

68

During sexual intercourse, oxytocin and __________ both stimulate smooth muscle contractions in the uterus and uterine tubes

prostaglandins