Flashcards in Final exam part four Deck (68):
Labia minora are
Paired folds immediately internal to the labia major. Devoid of hair & contain a highly vascular layer of areolar connective tissue. Sebaceous glands are located in these folds, & numerous melanocytes, resulting in enhanced pigmentation of the folds
Function of spiral mitochondria in a sperm cell
The mitochondris is there to store and produce energy for the sperm. They carry out aerobic respiration that produce energy in the form of ATP molecules ( Adenosine triphosphate). These are important in helping the sperm remain motile so it can have sufficient energy to reach the oviduct/ fallopian tube, where it will fertilize the egg. The flagella is vital in enabling the mobility.
Hymen of the female is
A vascularized, membranous barrier. Typically is perforated during the first instance of sexual intercourse, also may be perforated by tampon use, medical exams, or very strenuous physical activity
GnRH stimulates the release of?
LH & FSH
Triggers follicle to rupture releasing the oocyte, triggers development of corpus luteum, released from pituitary gland
Ovulation occurs at approximately which day of a 28 day ovarian cycle?
What is the function of luteinizing hormone (LH) & Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)?
Stimulate oocytes to develop & ovaries to release estrogen & progesterone
Uterine ostium is
The uterine opening of the oviduct
A mesenchymal column of tissue that connects the fetal testis to the developing scrotum and that is involved in testicular descent
A condition in which one or both of the testes fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum
The surgical cutting and sealing of part of each vas deferens, typically as a means of sterilization
The labioscrotal fold are
Lateral folds at either side of the embryonic cloacal membrane that develop into either the scrotum or the labia majora
Situated or occurring behind the peritoneum
Exocrine glands of the digestive system are responsible for
The release of digestive fluids. Secrete into ducts. Has a duct portion and a glandular portion. At the end of each branch is an acinus formed at secretory cells of two types: serous cells (which secrete proteins such as enzymes), and mucous cells (which secrete mucus).
Genital turbercle is
A conical protuberance on the belly wall of an embryo between the attachment of the umbilical cord and the tail that develops into the penis in the male and the clitoris in the female
Urogenital folds are derived from the
Cloacal folds; in male embryos, they close over the urethral plate and fuse to form the spongy urethra and ventral aspect of the penis; in female embryos, the unfused urogenital folds develop into the labia minora
A temporary organ that joins the mother and fetus, transferring oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and permitting the release of carbon dioxide and waste products from the fetus.
Phenotypic sex refers to
The appearance of an individual's internal & external genitalia. Starts to become apparent no earlier than the 7th week of development
Genetic sex refers to the
Sex of an individual based on her or his sex chromosomes. An individual with two x chromosomes is a genetic female, male is x & one y. Determined at fertilization.
Urethral orifice is
External opening of the urethra, from which urine is ejected during urination
Male gland that produces testosterone & sperm cells
From the epididymus sperm cells move into the?
Produce oocytes that are released into the pelvic cavity of a female
Gonad of the female reproductive system
What produces oocytes in a process known as oogenesis?
When oocytes are mature they are released from the ovary by?
Development of the oocytes begins during _____ _____ of the female, but they remain as ______ ______ until _______.
Once the secondary oocyte is ovulated and if it is fertilized what does it become?
If fertilization does not occur the corpus luteum develops into
Changes in the endometrium
Changes in the ovary
Once fertilization occurs, the oocyte & the sperm unite to become a
The zygote divides during which stage and what does it form?
Pre-embryonic stage & forms a two-celled stage
Once the zygote divides into a two-celled stage what happens next?
They go through numerous divisions and are called blastomeres
The two blastomeres divide and become what?
Four cells, this process continues until a cluster of cells (16-32 of them) is formed called a morula
As division continues the cluster of cells (morula) becomes a hollow ball of cells called a?
Not a stage of mitosis but a part of the cell cycle. Normal activities no noticeable change. Chromosomes NOT visible
Chromatin threads appear, chromatids visible, nuclear envelope disappears, centrioles move toward opposing cell poles.
Chromosomes line up in middle, microtubules attach to centromeres of chromosomes
Sister chromatids pulled apart to opposite ends of the cell
Two new cells begin to form as a cleavage furrow divides the cytoplasm, nuclear envelope reappears
A constricted region that joins two sister chromatids
The two strands joined together by a single centromere, formed from the duplication of the chromosome during the early stages of cell division and then separate to become individual chromosomes during the late stages of cell division
Meiosis I encompasses four stages: prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I and telophase I
Meiosis is a two-part cell division process that produces sex cells with one half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. There are two stages or phases of meiosis: meiosis I and meiosis II. At the end of the meiotic process, four daughter cells are produced
Meiosis II is the second part of the meiotic process. Much of the process is similar to mitosis and meiosis I
Chromotid threads begin to twist and condense, creating chromosomal structures which are visible to the microscope. Each chromosome then actively seeks out its homologous chromosome & becomes 4 chromatids
The chromosomes become arranged on the metaphase plate, much as the chromosomes do in mitosis, and are attached to the now fully formed spindle
Homologous pairs are
A chromosomes that exist in diploid cells. One of the pair you inherit from your father, the other from your mother. A human has 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes (these do not include sex chromosomes)
Reduction division is
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms; the nucleus divides into four nuclei each containing half the chromosome number
A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid. It is located in the nuclei of cells, which make up the body. Consequently, DNA can be considered as one of the building blocks of the body. In chromosomes
Produced by a type of meiosis (cell division). They are haploid (contain one set of chromosomes). When the haploid male and female gametes unite (fertilization), they form a zygote. The zygote is diploid and contains two sets of chromosomes
The cap (formed from the corpus spongiosum) over the distal end of the penis is the?
__________ , which is secreted by the placenta, stimulates the synthesis and secretion of testosterone before birth
In the male, the process in which sperm cells, secretions of the prostate, and secretions of the seminal vesicles accumulate in the prostatic urethra is called
The layer of clear, viscous fluid that is deposited around a primary oocyte is the
The funnel-shaped end of the uterine tube (fallopian tube) is the
The large, superior, rounded portion of the uterus is the
Which of these layers is shed during menses?
Functional layer of endometrium
During the menstrual cycle, the time between the ending of menses and ovulation is called the
The hormone responsible for ovulation is
In the menstrual cycle, progesterone levels are highest during
The secretory phase
A woman with a typical 28-day menstrual cycle is most likely to become pregnant from sexual intercourse occurring on days
While the follicle is developing, a positive-feedback loop occurs in which __________ stimulates the follicle, which increases the secretion of __________, which stimulates GnRH secretion
After fertilization, development of a full-term fetus depends upon
release of HCG by the trophoblast to maintain the corpus luteum