Flashcards in Lap Oral #2 Deck (128):
Serves as the control center of the cell. It contains DNA which indirectly regulates all cell activity. It also contains the nucleolus
Contains RNA, also where ribosomes are made
A double membrane organelle with the inner membrane folded to create more surface area. Some look like a bean with a worm inside, especially when they are sliced longitudinally. This organelle converts energy rich molecules into ATP. "Powerhouse" of the cell
What is it called when energy rich molecules are converted giving off heat as a byproduct?
Metabolism or cellular respiration
Mitochondrion are responsible for
Most of our metabolism
The cell membrane
Surrounds the cell & determines what substances can enter & exit the cell
The Golgi body
Also called Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex. Series of membranes that has several functions:
-Modification: Modifies new proteins destined for lysosomes, secretion, & plasma membrane
-Packaging: Packages enzymes for lysosomes & proteins for secretion
-Sorting: Sorts all materials for lysosomes, secretion, & incorporation into the plasma membrane
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Serious of membranes. Extends all throughout the cell. There are 2 types of ER, smooth ER, and rough ER
Functions of smooth ER (SER)
Synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates & detoxifies drugs & alcohol
the rough ER (RER)
Responsible for producing, transporting, & storing proteins to be exported outside the cell, proteins to be incorporated into the plasma membrane, & the enzymes that are housed w/in lysosomes
Function of rough ER (RER)
Synthesizes proteins for secretion, new proteins for the plasma membrane, & lysosomal enzymes; transports & stores molecules
Small bodies composed of RNA & protein. This is the place where proteins are made in the cell
Protein active cells have more
Where can ribosomes be found?
They can be attached to the ER making it rough or they can be found in the cytoplasm unattached or free thus called "free ribosomes"
The two types of ribosomes are
Free and fixed, they differ in the place that their proteins end up
Free ribosome proteins
Stay in the cytosol
Fixed ribosome proteins
End up outside the cell, in the cell membrane, or inside of a lysosome
Organelles that contain digestive enzymes. They function to break down various cell parts, & can even destroy the entire cell that they are located in. Sometimes referred to as "suicide organelles" because when things go wrong they can destroy their own healthy cells
What organelle produces the lysosomes?
The Golgi apparatus
Come in pairs-whole body is called centrosome
What do centrioles do?
During cell division they migrate to opposite sides of the cell & they produce microtubules that become the spindle apparatus along which chromosomes will move. The centrioles only become important during cell division
What produces spindle fibers?
How do cells make new cells?
By a process of cell division called mitosis
What are the phases of mitosis?
Not a stage of mitosis but part of the cell cycle. Chromosomes are NOT visible, the nuclear membrane is visible. This is the phase in which DNA is replicated
During prophase the chromosomes first appear (pro means beginning or before) so prophase marks the beginning of actual mitosis, the chromosomes first appear, they are DNA that are the light microscope. There is no particular arrangement of the chromosomes, they are just there
The chromosomes line up on the middle. The spindle fibers are organized now & the chromosomes are all lined up on the middle of the plane of the cell
Ana means to split & thats what happens, the chromosome halves, which are called chromatids, pull apart so that they can begin moving towards the opposite sides of the cell
The chromatids arrive at the opposite sides of the cell, the nuclear envelope begins to reappear
The four principle kinds of tissue are
Epithelial tissues form
The basis of many of the body surfaces, so that often one side of the cell is in contact with the exterior and one side of the cell is in contact with the interior. These cells play roles in absorption, secretion, and protection against foreign substances
The 3 different kinds of shapes of Epithelial tissues are
The two layer types epithelial tissue are
Stratified=two or more layers
Simple squamous epithelium is
A single layer of cells; lines blood vessels, alveoli of the lungs & respiratory pathway
What happens at the blood vessels and respiratory pathway and why?
Gases need to be exchanged across the thin membrane and it can only be done with thin cells
Stratified squamous epithelium comes
In layers; comes from wall of the vagina & also find it on the surface of your skin. It is in places where the epithelium might come into contact with abrasion, layers on the outside could sloth off, and layers below that would then be the living cells that would add to by mitosis to those cells that are constantly being worn off.
Most of the outer cells on the skin are?
Dead cells, they are there to protect the underlying living cells. Because it is in multiple layers it is stratified squamous epithelium
We can find simple cuboidal epithelium
Some of the small ducts inside of the nephron of the kidney, inside of the glandular tissue
Simple cuboidal epithelium is fairly common...what isn't fairly common?
Stratified cuboidal epithelium
Where can stratified cuboidal epithelium be found?
Inside the duct of the parotid gland
Simple columnar lines
The digestive tract.
Simple ciliated columnar epithelium has cilia on the end, the function of the cilia in the oviducts is
To move the egg along from the ovary down towards uterus
The cilia can move
Mucus or structures
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Fairly rare, two layers of columnar cells
Transitional epithelium is
Fairly rare, comes from lining the urinary bladder. Because the bladder will stretch and become stretched out or contract & become wrinkled the transitional epithelium tissue that lines that will change its shape. So you see some cells that look squamous on the surface and other cells that look more cuboidal, they are also in layers
Why do we call tissue transitional epithelium?
Because it changes form from one type to another
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
At first cells can look like they are stratified because there are two layers or more of the nuclei, however each cell is continuous with the basement membrane out to the surface. This tissue also has cilia & the cells are columnar shaped. Lining of the trachea
The epithelial cells are fairly easy to recognize. How?
On one edge there will be tissue & on the other edge there will be an opening of free space. This is because they cover & line structures
Lines or covers internal & external body surfaces.
-Two types of layers
Delicate, thin-gas exchange
Tough, anti-abrasive coverings, rapid mitosis
Absorb & secrete. Found in small tubules
Change from cuboidal to squamous-line urinary passages
Absorb & secrete. Found in large tubules
In larger respiratory tubes
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
How does connective tissue differ from other tissues?
It contains large amounts of intercellular matrix.
There are a number of types of connective tissue, but all serve at least one of the following purposes...
To bond other tissues together, provide support, provide nourishment, store waste, or repair damaged tissue
The four different kinds of connective tissue are
-Connective tissue proper
Connective tissues kind of do what?
Connect things, but not all of them are connective.
Connective tissues are what type of cells?
Living cells that are suspended or embedded within a matrix
A matrix is
The background material
Loose connective tissue
In loose connective tissue, living cells, which would be dark dots, are surrounded by a non living matrix
Why is it called loose connective tissue?
Because it gives a sense of being loose or open or airy
Adipose tissue are
Fat cells are a normal and
Necessary part of our cells
Adipose tissue is easy to recognize because
They are very large open cells, the nucleus is squashed out to the edge because it is filled with lipid material or the fat or oil that you would find inside of those cells
Dense regular connective tissue: Instead of being irregularly arranged it is
The protein fibers (collagen) are arranged regularly in regular rows. Dense tissue
Dense irregular connective tissue:
Fibers are NOT parallel to one another, they are irregularly arranged
What are the 3 types of cartilage?
Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrocartilage
Hyaline Cartilage is
Fairly dense, it doesn't move too much.
How is hyaline cartilage easy to identify?
Because it looks like champagne bubbles going up through the matrix which have unidentified fibers in it
Doesn't mend very much. Has fibers that are easy to see in the matrix. The fibers are parallel arranged to one another & very dense
Elastic cartilage have
Elastic fibers, which are little black short wiggly lines that make the cartilage be able to wiggle or stretch
Bone connective tissue
Have osteocytes (bone cells) that are embedded in a very dense, hard, mineral matrix
Bone tissue is layered around?
What are embedded in a very solid matrix?
Blood connective tissue: Its matrix is
Liquid, the plasma of the blood.
There are three types of cells embedded in the liquid matrix of blood connective tissue
3) Thrombocytes (platelets)
Common name for Erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells
Common name for Leukocytes
White Blood Cells
Common name for Thrombocytes
Support, protect & connect. Living cells in a non-living matrix
Irregularly arranged fibroblasts & fibers
Osteocytes embedded in a solid mineral matrix
Bone connective tissue
Liquid matrix-erythrocytes,leukocytes, & thrombocytes
Blood connective tissue
Matrix for hyaline cartilage
Matrix for elastic cartilage
Matrix with thin (elastic) fibers
Matrix for fibrocartilage
Matrix with thick (collagen) fibers
Contractile tissue. It composes most of the "meat"of the body.
There are three types of muscle
-Skeletal-which is striated & voluntary
-Cardiac- which is striated & involuntary
-Smooth-non striated & involuntary
Skeletal muscle tissue
Cilindricle looking cells. Very large, nucleus is pushed out to the edge of the cell, & the cells are not branching
Cardiac muscle tissue
Parallel fibers that branch. Also very dark structures that are found at the ends of each of the cells called (intercalated discs)
We recognize muscle tissue by
Having parallel fibers squared at the ends but also has intercalated discs, & the tissue is branched
Smooth muscle tissue are
Long skinny cells that taper at both ends (kinda look like ground worms with pointed ends) a single nucleus in the center of each of the cells
Smooth muscle tissue is found
In the organs
Many of our internal organs will have
Smooth muscle tissue
Contractile tissue- Cylindrical cells with evident nuclei
Large, striated cells with multiple peripheral nuclei
Small, striated cells with branches & intercalated discs
Small, non striated cells with tapering ends
Found throughout the body. They receive & transmit stimuli by converting the stimulus whether chemical or physical in nature, into a nerve impulse conducted by neurons. Nervous tissue also transmits impulses from the brain to receptor organs in response to stimuli
Nervous tissue is composed of
Neuroglial cells- support neurons
Neuron is composed of three major parts
2) Nerve cell body- central part
3) Axon-conducts message away from the cell body
Supportive cells, help support the neuron & its function, but they DON'T conduct an impulse themselves
Conductive cells & supportive cells
Conductive cell with dendrites, nerve cell body & axon
Supportive cells of neurons
Integumentary system includes the
Skin, hair, and nails
The epidermis is the
The dermis is
Connective tissues, blood, & nerve supply
The 3 layers of the skin are
They hypodermis is
Marked by adipose tissue
The 5 stratums of the epidermis are
1) Stratum corneum
2) Stratum Lucidum
3) Stratum Granulosum
4) Stratum Spinosum
5) Stratum Basale (Germinativum)
Cells that produce melanin are called
Which layer is mostly dead cells?
The dermis is divided into two layers
Superficial papillary layer and a deeper reticular layer
Layer of the lower part of the dermis which makes up most of the dermis
The hair, nails, and glands are all derived from the
Which structure is known as the oil gland giving you oily skin?
The place where blood and nerves enter the hair is called
The hair papilla
What does the arrector pili do?
Causes the hair to stand up