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Flashcards in Lap Oral #2 Deck (128):
1

The Nucleus

Serves as the control center of the cell. It contains DNA which indirectly regulates all cell activity. It also contains the nucleolus

2

The nucleolus

Contains RNA, also where ribosomes are made

3

The mitochondrion

A double membrane organelle with the inner membrane folded to create more surface area. Some look like a bean with a worm inside, especially when they are sliced longitudinally. This organelle converts energy rich molecules into ATP. "Powerhouse" of the cell

4

What is it called when energy rich molecules are converted giving off heat as a byproduct?

Metabolism or cellular respiration

5

Mitochondrion are responsible for

Most of our metabolism

6

The cell membrane

Surrounds the cell & determines what substances can enter & exit the cell

7

The Golgi body

Also called Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex. Series of membranes that has several functions:
-Modification: Modifies new proteins destined for lysosomes, secretion, & plasma membrane
-Packaging: Packages enzymes for lysosomes & proteins for secretion
-Sorting: Sorts all materials for lysosomes, secretion, & incorporation into the plasma membrane

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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Serious of membranes. Extends all throughout the cell. There are 2 types of ER, smooth ER, and rough ER

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Functions of smooth ER (SER)

Synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates & detoxifies drugs & alcohol

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the rough ER (RER)

Responsible for producing, transporting, & storing proteins to be exported outside the cell, proteins to be incorporated into the plasma membrane, & the enzymes that are housed w/in lysosomes

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Function of rough ER (RER)

Synthesizes proteins for secretion, new proteins for the plasma membrane, & lysosomal enzymes; transports & stores molecules

12

Ribosomes are

Small bodies composed of RNA & protein. This is the place where proteins are made in the cell

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Protein active cells have more

Ribosomes

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Where can ribosomes be found?

They can be attached to the ER making it rough or they can be found in the cytoplasm unattached or free thus called "free ribosomes"

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The two types of ribosomes are

Free and fixed, they differ in the place that their proteins end up

16

Free ribosome proteins

Stay in the cytosol

17

Fixed ribosome proteins

End up outside the cell, in the cell membrane, or inside of a lysosome

18

Lysosome are

Organelles that contain digestive enzymes. They function to break down various cell parts, & can even destroy the entire cell that they are located in. Sometimes referred to as "suicide organelles" because when things go wrong they can destroy their own healthy cells

19

What organelle produces the lysosomes?

The Golgi apparatus

20

Centrioles

Come in pairs-whole body is called centrosome

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What do centrioles do?

During cell division they migrate to opposite sides of the cell & they produce microtubules that become the spindle apparatus along which chromosomes will move. The centrioles only become important during cell division

22

What produces spindle fibers?

Centrioles

23

How do cells make new cells?

By a process of cell division called mitosis

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What are the phases of mitosis?

Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

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Interphase

Not a stage of mitosis but part of the cell cycle. Chromosomes are NOT visible, the nuclear membrane is visible. This is the phase in which DNA is replicated

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Prophase

During prophase the chromosomes first appear (pro means beginning or before) so prophase marks the beginning of actual mitosis, the chromosomes first appear, they are DNA that are the light microscope. There is no particular arrangement of the chromosomes, they are just there

27

Metaphase

The chromosomes line up on the middle. The spindle fibers are organized now & the chromosomes are all lined up on the middle of the plane of the cell

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Anaphase

Ana means to split & thats what happens, the chromosome halves, which are called chromatids, pull apart so that they can begin moving towards the opposite sides of the cell

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Telophase

The chromatids arrive at the opposite sides of the cell, the nuclear envelope begins to reappear

30

The four principle kinds of tissue are

Epithelial tissue
Nervous tissue
Muscle tissue
Connective tissue

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Epithelial tissues form

The basis of many of the body surfaces, so that often one side of the cell is in contact with the exterior and one side of the cell is in contact with the interior. These cells play roles in absorption, secretion, and protection against foreign substances

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The 3 different kinds of shapes of Epithelial tissues are

1) Squamous
2) Cuboidal
3) Columnar

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The two layer types epithelial tissue are

Simple=single layer
Stratified=two or more layers

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Simple squamous epithelium is

A single layer of cells; lines blood vessels, alveoli of the lungs & respiratory pathway

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What happens at the blood vessels and respiratory pathway and why?

Gases need to be exchanged across the thin membrane and it can only be done with thin cells

36

Stratified squamous epithelium comes

In layers; comes from wall of the vagina & also find it on the surface of your skin. It is in places where the epithelium might come into contact with abrasion, layers on the outside could sloth off, and layers below that would then be the living cells that would add to by mitosis to those cells that are constantly being worn off.

37

Most of the outer cells on the skin are?

Dead cells, they are there to protect the underlying living cells. Because it is in multiple layers it is stratified squamous epithelium

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We can find simple cuboidal epithelium

Some of the small ducts inside of the nephron of the kidney, inside of the glandular tissue

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Simple cuboidal epithelium is fairly common...what isn't fairly common?

Stratified cuboidal epithelium

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Where can stratified cuboidal epithelium be found?

Inside the duct of the parotid gland

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Simple columnar lines

The digestive tract.

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Simple ciliated columnar epithelium has cilia on the end, the function of the cilia in the oviducts is

To move the egg along from the ovary down towards uterus

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The cilia can move

Mucus or structures

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Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Fairly rare, two layers of columnar cells

45

Transitional epithelium is

Fairly rare, comes from lining the urinary bladder. Because the bladder will stretch and become stretched out or contract & become wrinkled the transitional epithelium tissue that lines that will change its shape. So you see some cells that look squamous on the surface and other cells that look more cuboidal, they are also in layers

46

Why do we call tissue transitional epithelium?

Because it changes form from one type to another

47

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

At first cells can look like they are stratified because there are two layers or more of the nuclei, however each cell is continuous with the basement membrane out to the surface. This tissue also has cilia & the cells are columnar shaped. Lining of the trachea

48

The epithelial cells are fairly easy to recognize. How?

On one edge there will be tissue & on the other edge there will be an opening of free space. This is because they cover & line structures

49

Lines or covers internal & external body surfaces.
-3 shapes
-Two types of layers

Epithelial tissue

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Delicate, thin-gas exchange

Simple squamous

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Tough, anti-abrasive coverings, rapid mitosis

Stratified squamous

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Absorb & secrete. Found in small tubules

Simple cuboidal

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Change from cuboidal to squamous-line urinary passages

Transitional epithelium

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Absorb & secrete. Found in large tubules

Simple columnar

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In larger respiratory tubes

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium

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How does connective tissue differ from other tissues?

It contains large amounts of intercellular matrix.

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There are a number of types of connective tissue, but all serve at least one of the following purposes...

To bond other tissues together, provide support, provide nourishment, store waste, or repair damaged tissue

58

The four different kinds of connective tissue are

-Connective tissue proper
-Cartilage
-Bone
-Blood

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Connective tissues kind of do what?

Connect things, but not all of them are connective.

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Connective tissues are what type of cells?

Living cells that are suspended or embedded within a matrix

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A matrix is

The background material

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Loose connective tissue

In loose connective tissue, living cells, which would be dark dots, are surrounded by a non living matrix

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Why is it called loose connective tissue?

Because it gives a sense of being loose or open or airy

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Adipose tissue are

Fat cells

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Fat cells are a normal and

Necessary part of our cells

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Adipose tissue is easy to recognize because

They are very large open cells, the nucleus is squashed out to the edge because it is filled with lipid material or the fat or oil that you would find inside of those cells

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Dense regular connective tissue: Instead of being irregularly arranged it is

The protein fibers (collagen) are arranged regularly in regular rows. Dense tissue

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Dense irregular connective tissue:

Fibers are NOT parallel to one another, they are irregularly arranged

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What are the 3 types of cartilage?

Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrocartilage

70

Hyaline Cartilage is

Fairly dense, it doesn't move too much.

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How is hyaline cartilage easy to identify?

Because it looks like champagne bubbles going up through the matrix which have unidentified fibers in it

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Fibrocartilage

Doesn't mend very much. Has fibers that are easy to see in the matrix. The fibers are parallel arranged to one another & very dense

73

Elastic cartilage have

Elastic fibers, which are little black short wiggly lines that make the cartilage be able to wiggle or stretch

74

Bone connective tissue

Have osteocytes (bone cells) that are embedded in a very dense, hard, mineral matrix

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Bone tissue is layered around?

Central Canal

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What are embedded in a very solid matrix?

Osteocytes

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Blood connective tissue: Its matrix is

Liquid, the plasma of the blood.

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There are three types of cells embedded in the liquid matrix of blood connective tissue

1) Erythrocytes
2) Leukocytes
3) Thrombocytes (platelets)

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Common name for Erythrocytes

Red Blood Cells

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Common name for Leukocytes

White Blood Cells

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Common name for Thrombocytes

Platelets

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Support, protect & connect. Living cells in a non-living matrix

Connective tissue

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Irregularly arranged fibroblasts & fibers

Loose (Areolar)

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Thin fibers=

Elastin

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Thick fibers=

Collagen

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Fat cells

Adipose

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Osteocytes embedded in a solid mineral matrix

Bone connective tissue

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Liquid matrix-erythrocytes,leukocytes, & thrombocytes

Blood connective tissue

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Matrix for hyaline cartilage

Clear matrix

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Matrix for elastic cartilage

Matrix with thin (elastic) fibers

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Matrix for fibrocartilage

Matrix with thick (collagen) fibers

92

Muscle tissue

Contractile tissue. It composes most of the "meat"of the body.

93

There are three types of muscle

-Skeletal-which is striated & voluntary
-Cardiac- which is striated & involuntary
-Smooth-non striated & involuntary

94

Skeletal muscle tissue

Cilindricle looking cells. Very large, nucleus is pushed out to the edge of the cell, & the cells are not branching

95

Cardiac muscle tissue

Parallel fibers that branch. Also very dark structures that are found at the ends of each of the cells called (intercalated discs)

96

We recognize muscle tissue by

Having parallel fibers squared at the ends but also has intercalated discs, & the tissue is branched

97

Smooth muscle tissue are

Long skinny cells that taper at both ends (kinda look like ground worms with pointed ends) a single nucleus in the center of each of the cells

98

Smooth muscle tissue is found

In the organs

99

Many of our internal organs will have

Smooth muscle tissue

100

Contractile tissue- Cylindrical cells with evident nuclei

Muscle tissue

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Large, striated cells with multiple peripheral nuclei

Skeletal

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Small, striated cells with branches & intercalated discs

Cardiac

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Small, non striated cells with tapering ends

Smooth

104

Nervous tissue

Found throughout the body. They receive & transmit stimuli by converting the stimulus whether chemical or physical in nature, into a nerve impulse conducted by neurons. Nervous tissue also transmits impulses from the brain to receptor organs in response to stimuli

105

Nervous tissue is composed of

Neurons-conducting cells
Neuroglial cells- support neurons

106

Neuron is composed of three major parts

1) Dendrites
2) Nerve cell body- central part
3) Axon-conducts message away from the cell body

107

Neuroglia cell

Supportive cells, help support the neuron & its function, but they DON'T conduct an impulse themselves

108

Conductive cells & supportive cells

Nervous tissue

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Conductive cell with dendrites, nerve cell body & axon

Neuron

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Supportive cells of neurons

Neuroglia

111

Integumentary system includes the

Skin, hair, and nails

112

The epidermis is the

Upper layer

113

The dermis is

Connective tissues, blood, & nerve supply

114

The 3 layers of the skin are

1) Epidermis
2) Dermis
3) Hypodermis

115

They hypodermis is

Marked by adipose tissue

116

The 5 stratums of the epidermis are

1) Stratum corneum
2) Stratum Lucidum
3) Stratum Granulosum
4) Stratum Spinosum
5) Stratum Basale (Germinativum)

117

Cells that produce melanin are called

Melanocytes

118

Which layer is mostly dead cells?

Stratum corneum

119

The dermis is divided into two layers

Superficial papillary layer and a deeper reticular layer

120

Recticular layer

Layer of the lower part of the dermis which makes up most of the dermis

121

The hair, nails, and glands are all derived from the

Epidermal layer

122

Which structure is known as the oil gland giving you oily skin?

Sebaceous glands

123

The place where blood and nerves enter the hair is called

The hair papilla

124

What does the arrector pili do?

Causes the hair to stand up

125

Epy=

Above

126

Hypy=

Below

127

Eponychium=

Cuticle

128

Hyponycium=

Region of thickened stratum corneum over which the free nail edge projects