Lecture 01: Intro to the CV System (Hayward) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 01: Intro to the CV System (Hayward) Deck (33):
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2 main divisions of circulatory system

pulmonary (R heart, low pressure) and systemic (L heart, high pressure)

1

How are two circulatory systems connected?

In series: R and L sides push same volume of blood at same time

2

4 components of each division of circulatory system

pump (heart), distribution system (arterial system), exchange region (capillaries), and collection system (venous system)

3

Main fx of atria

receive blood and assist its flow to the ventricles. Also do some pumping

4

Main fx of ventricles

pump blood. L--> eject blood to systemic circulation, R--> eject blood to pulmonary circulation

5

semilunar valves

allow for blood flow out of the ventricle into the pulmonary/systemic circulation

6

tricuspid valve

between RA and RV

7

Pulmonic valve

between RV and lung

8

mitral valve

b/w LA and LV

9

aortic valve

between LV and aorta

10

is opening/closing of valves active or passive?

passive; depends on pressure gradients only

11

AV valves

mitral and tricuspid valves

12

Main fx of arterial system

distribute blood. Also acts as a pressure storage system/regulates tissue blood flow and arterial pressure

13

Main fx of veins

reservoir of blood for rapid mobilization when additional blood flow/cardiac output is needed

14

main fx of capillaries

exchange of nutrients and elimination of waste

15

Primary regulators of BP, HR, and heart contractility

ANS and specific hormonal systems

16

All preganglionics release what neurotransmitter?

acetylcholine

17

What NT do parasympathetic postganglionics release?

Ach

18

What NT do sympathetic postganglionics release?

Norepinephrine

19

What receptors do parasym. postganglionics act on and where are they located?

Muscarinic receptors; parasym. postganglionic cell bodies located close to target tissues

20

Where are sympathetic postganglionic cell bodies located?

sympathetic chain or aggregations of postganglionic cells

21

What receptors do sympathetic postganglionics act on?

alpha or beta receptors

22

Where do sympathetic preganglionics originate?

TL-L3

23

Where do parasym. preganglionics originate?

brainstem and sacral cord

24

Where is vasopressin/ADH produced?

hypothalamus

25

where is epi produced?

adrenal medulla

26

RAAS --> CV system?

changes blood volume

27

What division of ANS innervates the vasculature?

parasympathetic

28

Which circulating hormones are most important to the CV system? (3)

1) RAAS
2) Vasopressin/ADH
3) Epinephrine

29

Blood flow

volume of blood that moves past a particular point in the CV system per unit time. Aka cardiac output

30

2 main factors influencing blood flow

blood pressure and resistance to flow

31

blood pressure

measure of the driving force propelling blood through the vessels

32

Flow =

F = (P1-P2)/R. The greater the pressure gradient, the better the flow

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