Lecture 2: the Spinal and Autonomic Nerves (part 1 of 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2: the Spinal and Autonomic Nerves (part 1 of 2) Deck (45):
1

define encephalopathy

a disease in the brain

2

define myelopathy

a disease in the spinal cord

3

define peripheral neuropathy

a disease in the peripheral nerves

4

the presence of what 4 conditions differentiates peripheral neuropathy from CNS encephalopathy and myelopathy?

1. hyporeflexia, hypotonia (less muscle tone)
2. "denervation" atrophy
3. unilateral motor and/or sensory deficits
4. normal function cranial and caudal to nerve lesion site

5

are cenral lesions usually unilateral or bilateral?

bilateral

6

what are the 4 main branches of spinal nerves?

1. dorsal branch
2. ventral branch
3. communicating branch
4. meningeal branch

7

what are the 4 anatomical parts to the typical spinal nerve?

1. roots
2. main trunk
3. the four primary branches
4. peripheral branches of these primary branches

8

where are roots of spinal nerves located?

within the vertebral canal

9

roots of spinal nerves are functionally associated with what?

functionally associated with the spinal cord even though they belong to the peripheral nervous system.

10

are dorsal roots and spinal (dorsal root) ganglia afferent or efferent in function?

afferent ie sensory

11

Are ventral roots afferent or efferent in function?

efferent ie motor

12

describe an identifying characteristic of the main trunk of typical spinal nerves and their location in most cases

it is typically very short and located in the intervertebral foramen

13

what is the spinal nerve formula for the horse?

C8 T18 L6 S5 Cd7

14

where does the first cervical nerve emerge from?

it emerges from the lateral vertebral foramen located in the atlas

15

where does the second cervical nerve emerge from?

it exits from the lateral vertebral foramen of the second cervical vertebrae (axis)

16

where does the eight cervical nerve run through?

the intervertebral foramen between the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae

17

how many cervical nerves and cervical vertebrae are there in the horse?

8 cervical nerves but only 7 cervical vertebrae

18

what does the dorsal primary branch supply?

dorsal axial (epaxial) muscles and skin over the dorsal and dorsolateral body areas

19

what does the ventral primary branch supply?

supplies ventral axial (hypaxial) muscles, muscles of ventral and ventrolateral regions like the thoracic and pelvic limbs and skin over these regions

20

what do ventral branches of the lower cervical and thoraci region (C6 - T1 or T2) form?

the brachial plexus

21

what do ventral branches of L4 - S4 form? what does it supply?

the lumbosacral plexus which supplies the pelvic limb and the perineal region

22

what does the meningeal branch supply?

it supplies the coverings of the spinal cord (meninges), blood vessels in the vertebral canal, and the intervertebral discs. these are implicated in back pain

23

what is an identifiable physical characteristic of the meningeal branch?

its is very small - difficult to see grossly

24

where does the communicating branch (ramus communicans) run?

it runs from the main trunk of a spinal nerve to the sympathetic trunk and chain ganglia

25

what is the communicating branch associated with functionally?

visceral function

26

what is a somatic structure?

it is associated with the body wall (skin, subcuntaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, joints, tendons, etc)

27

what is a visceral structure?

associated with internal organs, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands.

28

what is a cutaneous nerve?

peripheral nerves that go to the skin only

29

what are cutaneous nerves sometimes called? it can be misleading...

they are sometimes called sensory but this is a misleading name because they innervate the smooth muscle around blood vessels; thus contain visceral efferent nerve fibers

30

what are muscle nerves?

they are peripheral nerves that go to muscle only

31

what are muscle nerves also commonly called? why is it misleading?

muscle nerves are also commonly called motor nerves.

this is misleading because many nerve fibers in muscle are muscle afferents (sensory) from muscle proprioceptors

32

what are most large nerves? cutaneous or muscle nerves?

most are actually mixed nerves because they go to both skin and muscle.

33

is the femoral nerve a cutaneous nerve, muscle nerve or mixed nerve?

mixed because it branches peripherally into both cutaneous and muscle nerves

34

what are the functional components of cutaneous nerves (there are 3)

somatic afferents
visceral afferents
visceral efferents

35

where do the somatic afferents for cutaneous nerves come from?

from receptors in skin and subcutaneous tissue

36

where do the visceral afferents for cutaneous nerves come from?

from receptors in blood vessels

37

where do the visceral efferents for cutanoues nerves come from? what do these fibers supply?

postganglionic sympathetic fibers which have their cell bodies in chain ganglia. these fibers supply the smooth muscle of blood vessels to erector pilae muscles associated with hairs and sweat glands.

there are NO somatic Efferents because there is no striated muscle

38

define cutaneous area

the area of skin supplied by a given cutaneous nerve

39

what are the two zones within a cutaneous area?

overlap zones and autonomous zones

40

define overlap zone

an area supplied by more than one cutaneous nerve

41

define autonomous zone

an area supplied by only one cutaneous nerve

42

which region would experience anesthesia resulting from severe damage to one peripheral nerve and is thus the area of most diagnostic value in determining level of nerve damage in a patient?

the autonomous zone

43

what are the 4 functional components of muscle nerves?

1. somatic afferents (sensory)
2. visceral afferents (sensory)
3. visceral efferents (motor)
4. somatic efferents (motor)

44

the presence of which type of fiber distinguishes muscle nerves from cutaneous nerves?

somatic efferents

45

where can muscle nerves originate from?

1. dorsal or ventral primary branches
2. mixed nerves

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