Tumour pathology 1&2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tumour pathology 1&2 Deck (39):
1

Define tumour

Abnormal growing mass of tissue

2

What are the two types of tumours

Benign and Malignant

3

Define cancer

The ability to invade into adjacent tissue and to spread and grow at other sites within the body

4

What is a benign tumour called in Glandular and Squamos tissue

Adenoma
Squamos papiloma

5

Where does no benign form of tumour exist but only malignant

White blood cells
Lymphoid tissue
CNS
PNS

6

What is the benign nomenclature of bone, fat and fibrous tissue

Osteoma
Lipoma
Fibroma

7

In epithelia tissue what is a malignant tumour called

Adeno Carcinoma
Squamos carcinoma

8

What is a malignant tumour called in WBC

Leukaemia

9

What is a malignant tumour called in lymphoid tissue

Lymphoma

10

What is a malignant tumour called in CNS

astrocytoma

11

What is a malignant tumour called in Peripheral NS

schwannoma

12

What are germ cell tumours called

Teratoma

13

What teratoma is benign

Ovarian

14

What teratoma is malignant

testicular

15

What are the features of Benign tumours

Non invasive growth pattern
encapsulated
Does not spread

16

What are the features of Malignant tumours

Invasive growth pattern
No capsule
Spread of cancer
Loss of normal function

17

What are the 4 properties of cancer cells

Altered genetics
Altered cellular function
Abnormal morphology
Independent growth

18

What altered cellular functions result in tumour formation

Loss of tumour suppressor genes
Gain function of oncogenes

19

What is an oncogene

A mutation of a proto-oncongne that stimulates cell division

20

How is cellular function altered in cancer cells

Loss of cell- cell/ cell - matrix adhesion

21

What are the three tumour biomarkers

Onco fetal protein
oncogenes
growth factor and receptors

22

What is a onco fetal protein

A protein that is showed expression in prenatal but switched of post natal until tumour present

23

What is often present and abnormal in cancer cells

mitoses

24

How are tumour biomarkers used

To diagnose, prognose and predict treatment

25

What is the main abnormality in cancer cells

Morphology

26

Define Angiogenesis

Cell growth

27

What happens in tumour angiogenesis to sustain tumour growth

New blood vessel formation

28

what do blood vessels provide tumour with

route to enter cancer cells into circulation

29

What regulates tumour growth

apoptosis

30

What two ways can cancer be spread by

Invasiveness - surrounding tissue
Metastasis - other parts of the body

31

How are secondary tumours produced

through metastasis

32

What are the routes cancer can be spread

Local
Lymphatic
Blood
Trans colomic spread

33

What is the pathway of local spread

malignant tumour
invasion into connective tissue
Invasion into lymph/BV

34

What is transcoelomic spread of cancer

spread of tumour cells across bod cavities

35

What size must a tumour roughly be to be clinically found

5mm

36

What pleural cavity does transcoelomic metastasis occur

Lungs

37

Where in the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity does transcoelomic metastasis occur

stomach, colon and ovary

38

What is metastasis not related to

Blood flow

39

Common sites of metastasis

Liver
Adrenal gland
Brain
Lung
Bone