Flashcards in Chap 16, Pathology, Cutaneous Lesions Deck (42)
An area of abnormal tissue anywhere on or in the body. It may be caused by disease or trauma (external forces).
Collection of dried serum and cellular debris. A scab is a crust. It forms from the drying of a body exudate, as in eczema, impetigo, and seborrhea.
Thick-walled, closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material. Examples of cysts are the pilonidal cyst, which is found over the sacral area of the back in the midline and contains hairs (pil/o = hair, nid/o = nest); and a sebaceous cyst, a collection of yellowish, cheesy sebum commonly found on the scalp, vulva, and scrotum.
Wearing away or loss of epidermis. Erosions do not penetrate below the dermoepidermal junction. They occur as a result of inflammation or injury and heal without scarring.
Groove or crack-like sore. An anal fissure is a break in the skin lining of the anal canal.
Flat lesion measuring less than 1 cm in diameter. Freckles, tattoo marks, and flat moles are examples.
Is a large macule, greater than 1 cm in diameter.
Solid, round or oval elevated lesion 1 cm or more in diameter. An enlarged lymph node and solid growths are examples.
papule (adj. papular)
Small (less than 1 cm in diameter), solid elevation of the skin. Pimples are examples of papules. Papules may become confluent (run together) and form plaques, which are elevated flat lesions.
Growth extending from the surface of mucous membrane. Polyps (a type of papule) commonly are found in the nose and sinuses, colon, urinary bladder, and uterus.
Papule containing pus. A pustule is a small abscess (collection of pus) on the skin.
Open sore on the skin or mucous membranes (deeper than an erosion). Decubitus ulcers (bedsores) are caused by pressure that results from lying in one position. Pressure ulcers usually involve loss of tissue substance and pus or exudate formation.
Small collection (papule) of clear fluid (serum); blister. Vesicles form in burns, allergies, and dermatitis. A bulla (plural: bullae) is a large vesicle.
Smooth, edematous (swollen) papule or plaque that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin.
Absence of hair from areas where it normally grows. Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease in which hair falls out in patches without scarring or inflammation.
Bruise. Bluish-purplish mark on the skin.
Small, pinpoint hemorrhage.
Itching. Pruritus is a symptom associated with most forms of dermatitis and with other conditions as well.
Chronic papular and pustular eruptions of the skin with increased production of sebum. Acne vulgaris (vulgaris = ordinary) is caused by the buildup of sebum and keratin in the pores of the skin. A blackhead or open comedo (plural: comedones) is a sebum plug partially blocking the pore. If the pore becomes completely blocked, a whitehead (closed comedo) forms.
Injury to tissues caused by heat contact. 1) first-degree burns -- superficial epidermal lesions, erythema, hyperesthesia, and no blisters. 2) second-degree burns (partial-thickness burn injury) -- epidermal and dermal lesions, erythema, blisters, and hyperesthesia. 3) third-degree burns (full-thickness burn injury) -- epidermis and dermis are destroyed (necrosis of skin), and subcutaneous layer is damaged, leaving charred, white tissue.
Diffuse, acute infection of the skin marked by local heat, redness, pain, and swelling. Abscess formation and tissue destruction can occur if appropriate antibiotic therapy is not given. Areas of poor lymphatic drainage are susceptible to this skin infection.
eczema (atopic dermatitis)
Inflammatory skin disease with erythematous, papulovesicular, or papalosquamous lesions. This is a chronic or acute atopic dermatitis (rash often begins on face, hands, elbows, or knees). It is accompanied by intense pruritus and tends to occur in patients with a family history of allergic conditions.
exanthematous viral diseases
Rash (exanthem) of the skin due to a viral infection. Examples are rubella (German measles), rubeola (measles), and varicella (chickenpox). Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) is a common exanthematous viral disease. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is another common viral illness in children.
Death of tissue associated with loss of blood supply.
Bacterial inflammatory skin disease characterized by vesicles, pustules, and crusted-over lesions. This is a contagious pyoderma (py/o = pus) and usually is caused by staphylococci or streptococci.
Chronic, recurrent dermatosis marked by itchy, scaly, red plaques covered by silvery gray scales.
Contagious, parasitic infection of the skin with intense pruritus.
Chronic progressive disease of the skin and internal organs with hardening and shrinking of connective tissue.
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of collagen in skin, joints, and internal organs.
Infection of the skin caused by a fungus. Tinea corporis, or ringworm, tinea pedis (athlete's foot), tinea capitis (on the scalp), tinea barbae (affecting the skin under a beard), and tinea unguium (affecting the nails)
Acute allergic reaction in which red, round wheals develop on the skin.
Loss of pigment (depigmentation) in areas of the skin (mild-white patches).
Increased growth of cells in the keratin layer of the epidermis caused by pressure or friction.
Excess hypertrophied, thickened scar developing after trauma or surgical incision.
Thickened and rough lesion of the epidermis; associated with aging or skin damage. Actinic keratosis is caused by long-term ultraviolet light exposure and is a precancerous lesion that can evolve into squamous cell carcinoma. Seborrheic keratosis is a benign lesion that results from overgrowth of the upper epidermis and is dark in color.
White, thickened patches on mucous membrane tissue of the tongue or cheek (evolves to squamous cell carcinoma).
Pigmented lesion of the skin, commonly known as mole(s).
Epidermal growth (wart) caused by a virus. Verruca vulgaris (common wart); Plantar warts occur on the soles of the feet; juvenile warts occur on the hands and feet of children.
basal cell carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis. Most frequent type of skin cancer.
squamous cell carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the squamous epithelial cells in the epidermis. This tumor may grow in places other than the skin, wherever squamous epithelium is found (mouth, larynx, bladder, esophagus, lungs). Actinic (sun-related) keratoses are premalignant lesions in people with sun-damaged skin.
Cancerous growth composed of melanocytes. This malignancy is attributed to a genetic predisposition and to exposure to ultraviolet light.