Chap 13, Blood System, Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology, LOM > Chap 13, Blood System, Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 13, Blood System, Vocabulary Deck (42)
1

albumin

Protein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood

2

antibody (Ab)

Specific protein (immunoglobulin) produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens. An antibody is specific to an antigen and inactivates it.

3

antigen (Ag)

Substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody.

4

basophil

White blood cell containing granules that stain blue; associated with release of histamine and heparin.

5

bilirubin

Orange-yellow pigment in bile; formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells are destroyed.

6

coagulation

Blood clotting.

7

colony-stimulating factor (CSF)

Protein that stimulates growth of white blood cells (granulocytes).

8

differentiation

Change in structure and function of a cell as it matures; specialization.

9

electrophoresis

Method of separating serum proteins by electrical charge.

10

eosinophil

White blood cell containing granules that stain red; associated with allergic reactions.

11

erythroblast

Immature red blood cell.

12

erythrocyte

Red blood cell. There are about 5 million per microliter (µL) or cubic millimeter (mm3) of blood.

13

erythropoietin (EPO)

Hormone secreted by the kidneys; stimulates red blood cell formation.

14

fibrin

Protein that forms the basis of a blood clot.

15

fibrinogen

Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process.

16

globulin

Plasma protein; alpha, beta, and gamma (immune) globulins are examples.

17

granulocyte

White blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules: eosinophil, neutrophil, and basophil.

18

hematopoietic stem cell

Cell in the bone marrow that gives rise to all types of blood cells.

19

hemoglobin

Blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells.

20

hemolysis

Destruction or breakdown of blood (red blood cells).

21

heparin

Anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells.

22

immune reaction

Response of the immune system to foreign invasion.

23

immunoglobulin

Protein (globulin) with antibody activity; examples are IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD. Immun/o means protection.

24

leukocyte

White blood cell.

25

lymphocyte

Mononuclear leukocyte that produces antibodies

26

macrophage

Monocyte that migrates from the blood to tissue spaces. As a phagocyte, it engulfs foreign material and debris. In the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, macrophages destroy worn out red blood cells.

27

megakaryocyte

Large platelet precursor cell found in the bone marrow.

28

monocyte

Leukocyte with one large nucleus. It is a cell that engulfs foreign material and debris. Monocytes become macrophages as they leave the blood and enter body tissues.

29

mononuclear

Pertaining to a cell (leukocyte) with a single round nucleus; lymphocytes and monocytes are mononuclear leukocytes.

30

myeloblast

Immature bone marrow that gives rise to granulocytes.

31

neutrophil

Granulocytic leukocyte formed in bone marrow. It is a phagocytic tissue-fighting cell. Also called a polymorphonuclear leukocyte.

32

plasma

Liquid portion of blood; contains water, proteins, salts, nutrients, lipids, hormones, and vitamins.

33

plasmapheresis

Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge. Collected cells are tetransfused back into the donor. Fresh-frozen plasma or salt solution is used to replace withdrawn plasma.

34

platelet

Small blood fragment that collects at sites of injury to begin the clotting process.

35

polymorphonuclear

Pertaining to a white blood cell with a multilobed; neutrophil.

36

prothrombin

Plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process.

37

reticulocyte

Immature erythrocyte. A network of strands (reticulin) is seen after staining the cell with special dyes.

38

Rh factor

Antigen on red blood cells of Rh-positive (Rh+) individuals. The factor was first identified in the blood of a rhesus monkey.

39

serum

Plasma minus clotting proteins and cells. Clear, yellowish fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot. It is formed from plasma, but does not contain protein-coagulation factors.

40

stem cell

Unspecialized cell that gives rise to mature, specialized forms. A hematopoietic stem cell is the progenitor for all different types of blood cells.

41

thrombin

Enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation.

42

thrombocyte

Platelet.

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