Chap 2, Study Section 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap 2, Study Section 1 Deck (12)
1

anabolism

Process of building up large proteins from small protein pieces called amino acids. Ana- means up, bol means to cast, and -ism is a process.

2

catabolism

Process whereby complex nutrients are broken down to simpler substances and energy is released. Cata- means down, bol means to cast, and -ism is a process.

3

cell membrane

Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell.

4

chromosomes

Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes. There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes.

5

cytoplasm

All the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane.

6

DNA

Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell.

7

endoplasmic reticulum

Network of canals within the cytoplasm of the cell. Here, large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces.

8

genes

Regions of DNA within each chromosome.

9

karyotype

Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.

10

metabolism

Total of the chemical processes in a cell. It includes catabolism and anabolism. Meta- means change, bol means to cast, and -ism means a process.

11

mitochondria

Structures in the cytoplasm that provide the principal source of energy (miniature "power plants") for the cell. Catabolism is the process that occurs in mitochondria.

12

nucleus

Control center of the cell. it contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.

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