Chap 1, Basic Word Structure, Comb Forms Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology, LOM > Chap 1, Basic Word Structure, Comb Forms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 1, Basic Word Structure, Comb Forms Deck (100)
1

aden/o

gland

2

adenoma

tumor of a gland

The suffix -oma means tumor or mass.

3

adenitis

inflammation of a gland

The suffix -itis means inflammation.

4

arthr/o

joint

5

arthritis

inflammation of a joint(s)

6

bi/o

life

7

biology

process of study of life

The suffix -logy is composed of the root log (study) and the final suffix -y (process or condition).

8

biopsy

To remove & view living tissue under microscope.

The suffix -opsy means process of viewing. Living tissue is removed from the body and viewed under a microscope.

9

carcin/o

cancerous, cancer

10

carcinoma

malignant tumor or mass

A carcinoma is a cancerous tumor. Carcinomas grow from the epithelial (surface or skin) cells that cover the outside of the body and line organs, cavities, and tubes within the body.

11

cardi/o

heart

12

cardiology

study of the heart

13

cephal/o

head

14

cephalic

pertaining to the head

The suffix -ic means pertaining to. A cephalic presentation describes a "head first" position for the delivery of an infant.

15

What is the most common form of skin cancer or carcinoma of the skin?

Basal cell carcinoma

16

cerebr/o

cerebrum (largest part of the brain)

17

cerebral

pertaining to largest part of the brain - cerebrum

The suffix -al means pertaining to.

18

cis/o

to cut

19

incision

process of cutting into

The prefix in- means into, and the suffix -ion means process.

20

excision

process of cutting out

The prefix ex- means out.

21

crin/o

to secrete (to form and give off)

22

endocrine glands

glands that secrete hormones within the body

The prefix endo- means within; endocrine glands (e.g., thyroid, pituitary, and adrenal glands) secrete hormones directly within (into) the bloodstream. Other glands, called exocrine glands, release their secretion (e.g., saliva, sweat, tears) through tubes (ducts) to the outside of the body.

23

cyst/o

urinary bladder; a sac or a cyst (sac containing fluid)

24

cystoscopy

process of visual examination of the urinary bladder

The suffix -scopy is a complex suffix that includes the root scop, meaning visual examination, and the final suffix -y, meaning process.

25

complex suffixes

Many suffixes, like -scopy, contain an embedded root word. Other examples are -opsy (ops is a root) and -logy (log is a root).

26

cyt/o

cell

27

cytology

Study of cells

28

Examples of blood cells

1) erythrocytes (red blood cells)
2) leukocytes (a type of white blood cells)
3) Thrombocytes or platelets (clotting cells)

29

Cerebrum and the functions it controls:

Sensation from body
Movement
Eye movement
Thought processes
Writing
Hearing
Vision
Reading
Smell
Speech

30

derm/o

skin

31

dermatitis

inflammation of the skin

32

dermat/o

skin

33

hypodermic

pertaining to under or beneath skin

The prefix hypo- means under or below.

34

electr/o

electricity

35

electrocardiogram

record of the electricity of heart

The suffix -gram means record. Abbreviated ECG (or sometimes EKG).

36

encephal/o

brain

37

electroencephalogram

record of the electricity of brain.

The suffix -gram means record. Abbreviated EEG.

38

enter/o

intestines (usually the small intestine)

39

enteritis

inflammation of the small intestine or of the intestines

The small intestine is narrower but much longer than the large intestine (colon).

40

erythr/o

red

41

erythrocyte

A red blood cell

The suffix -cyte means cell. Erythrocytes carry oxygen in the blood.

42

gastr/o

stomach

43

gastrectomy

removal of the stomach

The suffix -ectomy means excision or removal. All or, more commonly, part of the stomach is removed.

44

gastrotomy

incision of the stomach

The suffix -tomy is another complex suffix, which contains the root tom, meaning to cut, and the final suffix -y, meaning process of.

45

glyc/o

sugar

46

hyperglycemia

condition of increased blood sugar

The prefix hyper- means excessive, above, or more than normal. The suffix -emia means blood condition.

47

gnos/o

knowledge

48

diagnosis

state of complete knowledge

The prefix dia- means complete. The suffix -sis means state or condition of. A diagnosis is made after sufficient information has been obtained about the patient's condition. Literally, it is a "state of complete knowledge."

49

prognosis

prediction about the outcome of illness

The prefix pro- means before. Literally "knowledge before," a prognosis is a prediction about the outcome of an illness, but it is always given after the diagnosis has been determined.

50

gynec/o

woman, female

51

gynecology

study of females & female diseases

52

hemat/o

blood

53

hematology

study of blood

54

hem/o

blood

55

hematoma

a mass or collection of blood

In this term, -oma means a mass or collection of blood, rather than a growth of cells (tumor). A hematoma forms when blood escapes from blood vessels and collects as a clot in a cavity or organ or under the skin.

56

hemoglobin

blood protein found in red blood cells

The suffix -globin means protein. Hemoglobin carries oxygen in red blood cells.

57

hepat/o

liver

58

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

59

iatr/o

treatment, physician

60

iatrogenic

producing adverse effects from medical treatment

The suffix -genic means pertaining to producing, produced by, or produced in. Iatrogenic conditions are adverse effects that result from treatment or intervention by a physician.

61

leuk/o

white

62

leukocyte

white blood cell

This blood cell helps the body fight disease.

63

log/o

study of

64

dermatology

study of skin

65

nephr/o

kidney

66

nephritis

inflammation of kidney

67

nephrology

study of the kidney

68

neur/o

nerve

69

neurology

study of nerves

70

onc/o

tumor

71

oncology

study of tumors

72

oncologist

specialist in the study of tumors

The suffix -ist means one who specializes in a field of medicine (or other profession).

73

ophthalm/o

eye

74

ophthalmoscope

visual measuring instrument of eyes

The suffix -scope means an instrument for visual examination. (To help with spelling, notice that just as there are two eyes, there are two "h"s in this term.)

75

oste/o

bone

76

osteitis

inflammation of the bone

77

osteoarthritis

inflammation of bone and joints

This condition of aging is actually a degeneration of bones and joints often accompanied by inflammation.

78

path/o

disease

79

pathology

study of disease(s)

80

pathologist

one who studies diseases.

A pathologist examines biopsy samples microscopically and examines dead bodies to determine the cause of death.

81

ped/o

child

82

pediatric

pertaining to treatment of children

Notice that ped/o is also in the term orthopedist. Orthopedists once were doctors who straightened (orth/o means straight) children's bones and corrected deformities. Nowadays, orthopedists specialize in disorders of bones and muscles in people of all ages.

83

psych/o

mind

84

psychology

study of mind

85

psychiatrist

specialist in the treatment of the mind

86

radi/o

x-rays

87

radiology

study of x-rays

Low-energy x-rays are used for diagnostic imaging.

88

ren/o

kidney

89

renal

pertaining to kidney

Ren/o (Latin) and nephr/o (Greek) both mean kidney. Ren/o is used with -al (Latin) to describe the kidney, whereas nephr/o is used with other suffixes such as -osis, -itis, and -ectomy (Greed) to describe abnormal conditions and operative procedures.

90

rhin/o

nose

91

rhinitis

inflammation of the nose

92

sarc/o

flesh

93

sarcoma

tumor of connective (fleshy) tissue

This is a cancerous (malignant) tumor. A sarcoma grows from cells of "fleshy" connective tissue such as muscle, bone, and fat, whereas a carcinoma (another type of cancerous tumor) grows from epithelial cells that line the outside of the body or the inside of organs in the body.

94

sect/o

to cut

95

resection

process of cutting out, removal

The prefix re- means back. S resection is a cutting back in the sense of cutting out or removal 9excision). A gastric resection is a gastrectomy, or excision of the stomach.

96

thromb/o

clot, clotting

97

thrombocyte

a clotting cell (platelet)

Also known as platelets, these cells help clot blood. A thrombus is the actual clot that forms, and thrombosis (-osis means condition) is the condition of clot formation.

98

ur/o

urinary tract, urine

99

urology

study of urinary tract

A urologist is a surgeon who operates on the organs of the urinary tract and the organs of the male reproductive system.

100

Hyperglycemia and Diabetes

Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) most frequently is associated with diabetes. People with diabetes have high blood sugar levels because they lack insulin (in type 1 diabetes) or have ineffective insulin (in type 2 diabetes). Insulin is the hormone normally released by the pancreas (an endocrine gland near the stomach) to "escort" sugar from the bloodstream into cells. Sugar (glucose) is then broken down in cells to release energy. When insulin is not present, sugar cannot enter cells and builds up in the bloodstream (hyperglycemia).

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