Chap 10, Nervous System, Spelling Practice Quiz Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology, LOM > Chap 10, Nervous System, Spelling Practice Quiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 10, Nervous System, Spelling Practice Quiz Deck (39)
1

analgesia

Absence of sensitivity to pain.

an-: no, not, without
-algesia: excessive sensitivity to pain.

2

ataxic gate

Uncoordinated walk.

-ic: pertaining to
a-: no, not, without
tax/o: order, coordination

3

aneurysm

Weakening of an arterial wall, which may lead to hemorrhage and cerebrovascular accident (stroke).

4

acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells.

5

brainstem

Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord.

6

cerebral gyrus

Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebrum or cerebral cortex; convolution.

cerebr/o: cerebrum
-al: pertaining to

7

cerebral sulci

Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure.

cerebr/o: cerebrum
-al: pertaining to

8

dopamine

Neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; deficient in patients with Parkinson disease.

9

dyskinesia

Impairment of the ability to perform voluntary movements.

dys-: bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
kinesi/o: movement

10

dysphasia

loss or deficiency in the power to use or understand language as a result of injury to or disease of the brain.

dys-: bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
-phasia: speech

11

demyelination

The state resulting from the loss or destruction of myelin; also: the process of such loss or destruction.

de-: lack of; down; less; removal of
myel/o: spinal cord or bone marrow
-ion: process

12

efferent nerve

Transmits information rather than receives information (motor nerve).

13

hemiparesis

Slight paralysis of the right or left half of the body.

-paresis: weakness
hemi-: half

14

embolus

Blood clot that is carried by the bloodstream from one area of the body to another where it blocks a blood vessel (travelling clot or thrombus that causes occlusion).

em-: in
-us: structure; thing

15

epilepsy

Brain disorder marked by recurrent attacks (seizures) of abnormal nervous impulses.

epi-: above, upon, on
-lepsy: seizue

16

hypothalamus

Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones.

-us: structure; thing
hypo-: deficient, below, under, less than normal
thalam/o: thalamus

17

leptomeninges, pia-arachnoid, or leptomeninx

The pia mater and the arachnoid as distinct from the dura mater because of their thinner and more delicate structure.

lept/o-: thin, slender
mening/o: membranes, meninges

18

myelin sheath (verb form: myelin sheathe)

Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons.

myel/o: spinal cord or bone marrow

19

meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges.

mening/o: meninges, membranes
-itis: inflammation

20

meningomyelocele or myelomeningocele

Congenital hernia (protrusion) of the spinal cord and meninges through a defect (gap) in the vertebral column. This defect is often associated with spina bifida.

-cele: hernia
mening/o: meninges, membranes
myel/o: spinal cord or bone marrow

21

medulla oblongata

Lower part of the brain, closest to the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels.

medull/o: medulla (inner section); middle; soft, marrow

22

neuralgia

Nerve pain.

-algia: pain
neur/o: nerve

23

olfactory

of, relating to, or connected with the sense of smell; cranial nerve I, or 1st cranial nerve.

24

paresthesia (plural: paresthesias)

An abnormal nervous sensation occurring without apparent cause. Examples are numbness, tingling, or pricking sensations. [often used in the plural (paresthesias)]

-esthesia: feeling; nervous sensation
para-: along the side of

25

Parkinson disease

1) Degeneration of nerves in the basal ganglia occurring in later life, leading to tremors, shuffling gait, and muscle stiffness; dopamine (neurotransmitter) is deficient in the brain. 2) Degeneration of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter, dopamine in the brain; leads to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement.

26

paraplegia

Paralysis of the lower part of the body and both legs.

plegia-: paralysis; loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body
para-: along the side of

27

cerebral palsy

1) Partial paralysis and muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy or in the perinatal period.
2) A nonprogressive paralysis resulting from developmental defects in brain or trauma at birth.

palsy: paralysis; temporary or permanent loss of sensation or loss of ability to move or to control movement.
cerebr/o: cerebrum

28

pial membrane

pertaining to the pia mater

-al: pertaining to
pi/o

29

quadriplegia

Paralysis of all four limbs; both arms and both legs.

quadri-: four
-plegia: paralysis; loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body

30

subdural hematoma

Collection of blood in the space below the dura mater surrounding the brain.

-al: pertaining to
dur/o: dura mater
sub-: under; below

-oma: tumor; mass; fluid collection
-hema: blood

31

syncope

Fainting; temporary loss of consciousness.

syn-: together; with

32

trigeminal neuralgia

Burning pain in cheek, forehead, scalp. Flashes of stab like pain along the course of a branch of the trigeminal nerve (5th cranial nerve). The trigeminal nerve has branches to the eye, upper jaw and lower jaw.

tri-: three
-al: pertaining to
neur/o: nerve
-algia: pain

33

vagal nerve

Pertaining to the 10th cranial nerve (cranial nerve X); its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach (chest and abdomen).

-al: pertaining to
vag/o: vagus nerve

34

TIA

transient ischemic attack

trans-: across; through
-ic: pert. to
isch/o: hold back; back

35

MS

Multiple sclerosis. Destruction of the myelin sheath (demyelination) and its replacement by hard plaques.

multi-: many
-sclerosis: hardening

36

AD

Alzheimer disease. Deterioration of mental capacity (dementia); autopsy shows cerebral cortex atrophy, widening of the cerebral sulci, and microscopic neurofibrillary tangles.

dis-: free of; to undo

37

ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (pert. to lack of muscle growth). Atrophy of muscles and paralysis caused by damage to motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem.

38

EEG

electroencephalogram

39

CVA

Cerebral vascular accident. Stroke

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