Flashcards in Chap 4 Deck (136)
adenoma: tumor of a gland
The suffix -oma means tumor or mass.
adenitis: inflamation of a gland
The suffix -itis means inflammation.
to lead, carry
to bind, tie, connect
pubis (pubic bone); anterior portion of the pelvic or hipbone
to put, place
thyroid gland; shield (the shape of the thyroid gland resembled [-oid] a shield to those who named it)
place, position, location
coming together, to pour
substance that produces
to slide, fall, sag
breakdown, destruction, separation
to bear, carry; feeling (mental state)
development, formation, growth
structure or formation
falling, drooping, prolapse
adductor: a muscle that draws a limb toward the body.
Memory tip: notice that in adductor, the d faces toward the a.
anabolism: process of building up proteins in cells
analysis: separation of a substance into various parts.
Urinalysis (urin/o + analysis) is a laboratory examination of urine that aids in the diagnosis of many medical conditions. In this term, -lysis means separation.
ante cibum: (a.c.) before meals
The notation a.c., seen on prescription orders, means before meals.
antibiotic: chemical substance that has the ability to inhibit or destroy foreign organisms in the body.
Antibiotics destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria. Penicillin was the first antibiotic (discovered in immature plants called molds).
antibody: protein made by white blood cells in response to foreign substances (antigens) in the blood.
Protein produced against an antigen (foreign body).
antigen: substance that stimulates the production of antibodies.
In this term, anti- is short for antibody. An antigen (bacterium or virus) is a substance that produces (-gen) an antibody.
antisepsis: destruction of microorganisms to prevent infection
An antiseptic (-sis changes to -tic to form an adjective) substance fights infection.
antitoxin: substance produced against a toxin (poison); an antibody.
This is an antibody, often from an animal (such as a horse), that acts against a toxin. An example is tetanus antitoxin given against tetanus, an acute bacterial infection of the nervous system.
autoimmune disease: antibodies that are produced against an individual's own normal cells.
bifurcation: branching or forking into two parts
Normal splitting into two branches, such as bifurcation of the trachea to form the bon chi.
bilateral: pertaining to both or two sides
bradycardia: slow heartbeat
Usually a heartbeat of less that 60; a slow heart rate.
catabolism: cellular process of breaking down of a complex substance into simple compounds. Energy is released to do the work of the cell.
congenital anomaly: abnormality present at birth; birth defect.
connective: tissue that supports and binds other tissues and parts. ex.: bone, cartilage, muscle or fibrous tissues.
contraindication: a factor that prohibits the administration of a drug or procedure
Contra- means against in this term.
contralateral: affecting the opposite side of a part of the body.
Contra- means opposite in this term. A stroke affecting the right side of the brain may cause contralateral paralysis affecting the left arm and leg. The opposite of contralateral is ipsilateral. (ipsi- means the same).
down, lack of
dehydration: excessive loss of water
diameter: measurement between opposites points on the periphery of a circular body part (eg. blood vessel or intestine).
diarrhea: frequent passage of loose watery stools.
dialysis: separation of nitrogenous wastes from the blood when the kidneys no longer function.
Literal meaning is complete (dia-) separation (-lysis). In hemodialysis, waste materials are separated from the blood via a machine (artificial kidney) when the kidneys no longer function.
bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
dyspnea: difficult breathing
Often caused by respiratory or cardiac conditions, strenuous exercise, or anxiety.
bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
dysplasia: condition of abnormal formation
ectopic pregnancy: pregnancy that is not in the normal location (uterus); a fallopian tube is the most common ectopic site.
Ectopic means pertaining to out of place and modifies the noun "pregnancy."
endocardium: inner lining of the heart.
endoscope: instrument to visually examine the interior of the body.
endotracheal: pertaining to within the trachea
An endotracheal tube, placed through the mouth into the trachea, is used for giving oxygen and in general anesthesia procedures.
upon, on, above
epithelium: layer of cells covering the external surface of the body and lining the hollow tubes within the body
euphoria: exaggerated feeling of well-being; elevated mood, "high."
euthyroid: normal thyroid function
out, outside, away from
exophthalmos: protrusion of the eyeball
Protrusion of the eyeball associated with enlargement and overactivity of the thyroid gland; also called proptosis (pro- = forward, -ptosis = prolapse).
hemiglossectomy: removal (resection) of half the tongue
hyperglycemia: high levels of sugar in bloodstream.
This is a sign of diabetes mellitus. Lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or ineffective insulin (type 2 diabetes) causes high levels of sugar in the blood.
hyperplasia: condition of increased formation of cells.
Increase in cell numbers. Hyperplasia is a characteristic of tumour growth.
hypertrophy: increase in size of tissue or an organ due to increase in size of individual cells.
Increase in size of individual cells. Muscle, cardiac, and renal cells exhibit hypertrophy when workload is increased.
hypodermic injection: placement of needle below the skin.
hypoglycemia: low/deficient levels of sugar in bloodstream.
insomniac: pertaining to without sleep; an insomniac is a person who cannot sleep.
incision: process of cutting into or making an incision.
beneath, under, inferior to, below
infracostal: pertaining to below the ribs
intercostal: pertaining to between the ribs
Intercostal muscles lie between adjacent ribs.
in, within, into
intravenous: pertaining to within a vein
macrocephaly: condition of a larger than normal head.
This is a congenital anomaly.
malaise: general feeling of bodily discomfort
This is a French word meaning discomfort. It is a symptom of illness often marking the onset of a disease.
malignant: cancerous; harmful
From the latin ignis, meaning fire. Benign (ben- = good) is noncancerous, whereas malignant means cancerous.
metacarpal bones: hand bones
The five hand bones lie beyond the wrist bones but before the finger bones (phalanges).
metamorphosis: conditions of change of shape or form
Meta- means change in this term. The change in development from the larval (caterpillar) stage to the adult (butterfly) is a form of metamorphosis. Embryonic (immature) stem cells spontaneously change (undergo metamorphosis) to form different types of mature cells.
metastasis: spread of malignant tumour beyond its original location to a distant site.
Meta- = beyond and =stasis = controlling, stopping. A metastasis is a malignant tumour that has spread to a secondary location.
microscope: instrument to view small projects
neonatal: pertaining to a new birth
The neonatal period is the interval from birth to 28 days.
neoplasm: new growth
A neoplasm may be benign or malignant.
pancytopenia: deficiency of all blood cells
Deficiency of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.
abnormal, beside, near
paralysis: destruction of nerve tissue leading to loss of sensation or motion in a body part
Abnormal disruption of the connection between nerve and muscle. Originally from the Greek paralysis, meaning separation or loosening on one side, describing the loss of movement on one side of the body (occurring in stroke patients).
abnormal, beside, near
parathyroid glands: four endocrine glands on the posterior (dorsal) region of the thyroid gland
Para- means beside. The four parathyroid glands are located behind the thyroid gland. They secrete a hormone that regulates the calcium levels in blood and tissues.
percutaneous: pertaining to through the skin
pericardium: double-layered membrane surrounding the heart
periosteum: membrane surrounding bones
polymorphonuclear: pertaining to a multi-lobed nucleas (in granulocytic) white blood cells.
polyneuritis: inflammation of many nerves
postmortem: after death
postpartum: after birth
before, in front of
precancerous: pertaining to occurring before a malignant condition.
before, in front of
prenatal: pertaining to before birth
prodrome: symptom that appears before the onset of a more serious illness
Prodromal signs and symptoms (rash, fever) appear before the actual illness (such as chickenpox) and signal its onset. Altered mood, fatigue, flashes of light, or stiff muscles may accompany the prodromal migraine aura that occurs before the actual headache.
prolapse: sliding forward or downward
The suffix -lapse means to slide, sag, or fall.
prosthesis: an artificial limb
An artificial limb is a prosthesis.
relapse: sliding or falling back; as in recurrence of symptoms or decline after apparent recovery
A disease or its signs and symptoms return after an apparent recovery.
remission: disappearance of symptoms of a disease
Signs and symptoms lessen and the patient feels better. Remission may be spontaneous or the result of treatment. In some cases a permanent remission means the disease is cured.
recombinant DNA: insertion of a gene (region of DNA) from an organism into the DNA of another organism
Genetic engineering uses recombinant DNA techniques.
retroperitoneal: pertaining to behind the peritoneum (membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity)
retroflexion: bending backwards
An abnormal position of an organ, such as the uterus, bent or tilted backward.
subcutaneous: pertaining to under the skin
suprapubic: pertaining to above the pubic bones
The pubis is one of a pair of pubic bones that forms the anterior part of the pelvic (hip) bone.
syndactyly: fusion of fingers or toes
A hereditary, congenital anomaly of fingers or toes.
synthesis: combination of simple substances to create something new and more complex
In protein synthesis, complex proteins are built up from simpler amino acids.
syndrome: group of symptoms that occur together indicating a particular condition or disorder
symbiosis: close association between organisms of different species or a state in which two people are emotionally dependent on each other
symmetry: equality of parts, literally measured together
Equality of parts on opposite sides of the body. What is asymmetry?
symphysis: Bones that grow together separated by a piece of fibrocartilage. The pubic symphysis of the pelvis is an example.
A symphysis is a joint in which the bony surfaces are firmly united by a layer of fibrocartilage.
tachypnea: excessively fast breathing
transfusion: transfer of blood from one person to another.
transurethral: pertaining to across or through the urethra
ultrasonography: the use of high frequency sound waves to produce a record or a picture of an organ or tissue