Chap 4 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology, LOM > Chap 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 4 Deck (136)
1

aden/o

gland

adenoma: tumor of a gland
The suffix -oma means tumor or mass.

adenitis: inflamation of a gland
The suffix -itis means inflammation.

2

carp/o

wrist bones

3

cib/o

meals

4

cis/o

to cut

5

cost/o

rib

6

cutane/o

skin

7

dactyl/o

fingers, toes

8

duct/o

to lead, carry

9

flex/o

to bend

10

furc/o

forking, branching

11

gloss/o

tongue

12

glyc/o

sugar

13

immuno/o

protection

14

morpho/o

shape, form

15

mort/o

death

16

nat/i

birth

17

nect/o

to bind, tie, connect

18

norm/o

rule, order

19

ox/o

oxygen

20

pub/o

pubis (pubic bone); anterior portion of the pelvic or hipbone

21

seps/o

infection

22

somn/o

sleep

23

son/o

sound

24

the/o

to put, place

25

thel/o, theli/o

nipple

26

thyr/o

thyroid gland; shield (the shape of the thyroid gland resembled [-oid] a shield to those who named it)

27

top/o

place, position, location

28

tox/o

poison

29

trache/o

windpipe, trachea

30

urethr/o

urethra

31

-blast

embryonic, immature

32

-crine

to secrete

33

-drome

to run

34

-fusion

coming together, to pour

35

-gen

substance that produces

36

-lapse

to slide, fall, sag

37

-lysis

breakdown, destruction, separation

38

-meter

to measure

39

-mission

to send

40

-or

one who

41

-oxia

oxygen

42

-partum

birth, labor

43

-phoria

to bear, carry; feeling (mental state)

44

-physis

to grow

45

-plasia

development, formation, growth

46

-plasm

structure or formation

47

-pnea

breathing

48

-ptosis

falling, drooping, prolapse

49

-rrhea

flow, discharge

50

-stasis

stopping, controlling

51

-trophy

development, nourishment

52

ad-

toward

adductor: a muscle that draws a limb toward the body.

Memory tip: notice that in adductor, the d faces toward the a.

53

ana-

up, apart

anabolism: process of building up proteins in cells

analysis: separation of a substance into various parts.

Urinalysis (urin/o + analysis) is a laboratory examination of urine that aids in the diagnosis of many medical conditions. In this term, -lysis means separation.

54

ante-

before, forward

ante cibum: (a.c.) before meals

The notation a.c., seen on prescription orders, means before meals.

55

anti-

against

antibiotic: chemical substance that has the ability to inhibit or destroy foreign organisms in the body.

Antibiotics destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria. Penicillin was the first antibiotic (discovered in immature plants called molds).

56

anti-

against

antibody: protein made by white blood cells in response to foreign substances (antigens) in the blood.

Protein produced against an antigen (foreign body).

57

anti-

against

antigen: substance that stimulates the production of antibodies.

In this term, anti- is short for antibody. An antigen (bacterium or virus) is a substance that produces (-gen) an antibody.

58

anti-

against

antisepsis: destruction of microorganisms to prevent infection

An antiseptic (-sis changes to -tic to form an adjective) substance fights infection.

59

anti-

against

antitoxin: substance produced against a toxin (poison); an antibody.

This is an antibody, often from an animal (such as a horse), that acts against a toxin. An example is tetanus antitoxin given against tetanus, an acute bacterial infection of the nervous system.

60

auto-

self, own

autoimmune disease: antibodies that are produced against an individual's own normal cells.

61

bi-

two

bifurcation: branching or forking into two parts

Normal splitting into two branches, such as bifurcation of the trachea to form the bon chi.

62

bi-

two

bilateral: pertaining to both or two sides

63

brady-

slow

bradycardia: slow heartbeat

Usually a heartbeat of less that 60; a slow heart rate.

64

cata-

down

catabolism: cellular process of breaking down of a complex substance into simple compounds. Energy is released to do the work of the cell.

65

con-

with, together

congenital anomaly: abnormality present at birth; birth defect.

66

con-

with, together

connective: tissue that supports and binds other tissues and parts. ex.: bone, cartilage, muscle or fibrous tissues.

67

contra-

against, opposite

contraindication: a factor that prohibits the administration of a drug or procedure

Contra- means against in this term.

68

contra-

against, opposite

contralateral: affecting the opposite side of a part of the body.

Contra- means opposite in this term. A stroke affecting the right side of the brain may cause contralateral paralysis affecting the left arm and leg. The opposite of contralateral is ipsilateral. (ipsi- means the same).

69

de-

down, lack of

dehydration: excessive loss of water

70

dia-

through, complete

diameter: measurement between opposites points on the periphery of a circular body part (eg. blood vessel or intestine).

71

dia-

through, complete

diarrhea: frequent passage of loose watery stools.

72

dia-

through, complete

dialysis: separation of nitrogenous wastes from the blood when the kidneys no longer function.

73

dia-

through, complete

Literal meaning is complete (dia-) separation (-lysis). In hemodialysis, waste materials are separated from the blood via a machine (artificial kidney) when the kidneys no longer function.

74

dys-

bad, painful, difficult, abnormal

dyspnea: difficult breathing

Often caused by respiratory or cardiac conditions, strenuous exercise, or anxiety.

75

dys-

bad, painful, difficult, abnormal

dysplasia: condition of abnormal formation

76

ec-, ecto-

out, outside

ectopic pregnancy: pregnancy that is not in the normal location (uterus); a fallopian tube is the most common ectopic site.

Ectopic means pertaining to out of place and modifies the noun "pregnancy."

77

endo-

in, within

endocardium: inner lining of the heart.

78

endo-

in, within

endoscope: instrument to visually examine the interior of the body.

79

endo-

in, within

endotracheal: pertaining to within the trachea

An endotracheal tube, placed through the mouth into the trachea, is used for giving oxygen and in general anesthesia procedures.

80

epi-

upon, on, above

epithelium: layer of cells covering the external surface of the body and lining the hollow tubes within the body

81

eu-

good, normal

euphoria: exaggerated feeling of well-being; elevated mood, "high."

82

eu-

good, normal

euthyroid: normal thyroid function

83

ex-

out, outside, away from

exophthalmos: protrusion of the eyeball

Protrusion of the eyeball associated with enlargement and overactivity of the thyroid gland; also called proptosis (pro- = forward, -ptosis = prolapse).

84

hemi-

half

hemiglossectomy: removal (resection) of half the tongue

85

hyper-

excessive, above

hyperglycemia: high levels of sugar in bloodstream.

This is a sign of diabetes mellitus. Lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or ineffective insulin (type 2 diabetes) causes high levels of sugar in the blood.

86

hyper-

excessive, above

hyperplasia: condition of increased formation of cells.

Increase in cell numbers. Hyperplasia is a characteristic of tumour growth.

87

hyper-

excessive, above

hypertrophy: increase in size of tissue or an organ due to increase in size of individual cells.

Increase in size of individual cells. Muscle, cardiac, and renal cells exhibit hypertrophy when workload is increased.

88

hypo-

deficient, under

hypodermic injection: placement of needle below the skin.

89

hypo-

deficient, under

hypoglycemia: low/deficient levels of sugar in bloodstream.

90

in-

not

insomniac: pertaining to without sleep; an insomniac is a person who cannot sleep.

91

in-

into, within

incision: process of cutting into or making an incision.

92

infra-

beneath, under, inferior to, below

infracostal: pertaining to below the ribs

93

inter-

between

intercostal: pertaining to between the ribs

Intercostal muscles lie between adjacent ribs.

94

intra-

in, within, into

intravenous: pertaining to within a vein

95

macro-

large

macrocephaly: condition of a larger than normal head.

This is a congenital anomaly.

96

mal-

bad

malaise: general feeling of bodily discomfort

This is a French word meaning discomfort. It is a symptom of illness often marking the onset of a disease.

97

mal-

bad

malignant: cancerous; harmful

From the latin ignis, meaning fire. Benign (ben- = good) is noncancerous, whereas malignant means cancerous.

98

meta-

beyond, change

metacarpal bones: hand bones

The five hand bones lie beyond the wrist bones but before the finger bones (phalanges).

99

meta-

beyond, change

metamorphosis: conditions of change of shape or form

Meta- means change in this term. The change in development from the larval (caterpillar) stage to the adult (butterfly) is a form of metamorphosis. Embryonic (immature) stem cells spontaneously change (undergo metamorphosis) to form different types of mature cells.

100

meta-

beyond, change

metastasis: spread of malignant tumour beyond its original location to a distant site.

Meta- = beyond and =stasis = controlling, stopping. A metastasis is a malignant tumour that has spread to a secondary location.

101

micro-

small

microscope: instrument to view small projects

102

neo-

new

neonatal: pertaining to a new birth

The neonatal period is the interval from birth to 28 days.

103

neo-

new

neoplasm: new growth

A neoplasm may be benign or malignant.

104

pan-

all

pancytopenia: deficiency of all blood cells

Deficiency of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.

105

para-

abnormal, beside, near

paralysis: destruction of nerve tissue leading to loss of sensation or motion in a body part

Abnormal disruption of the connection between nerve and muscle. Originally from the Greek paralysis, meaning separation or loosening on one side, describing the loss of movement on one side of the body (occurring in stroke patients).

106

para-

abnormal, beside, near

parathyroid glands: four endocrine glands on the posterior (dorsal) region of the thyroid gland

Para- means beside. The four parathyroid glands are located behind the thyroid gland. They secrete a hormone that regulates the calcium levels in blood and tissues.

107

per-

through

percutaneous: pertaining to through the skin

108

peri-

surrounding

pericardium: double-layered membrane surrounding the heart

109

peri-

surrounding

periosteum: membrane surrounding bones

110

poly-

many, much

polymorphonuclear: pertaining to a multi-lobed nucleas (in granulocytic) white blood cells.

111

poly-

many, much

polyneuritis: inflammation of many nerves

112

post-

after, behind

postmortem: after death

113

post-

after, behind

postpartum: after birth

114

pre-

before, in front of

precancerous: pertaining to occurring before a malignant condition.

115

pre-

before, in front of

prenatal: pertaining to before birth

116

pro-

before, forward

prodrome: symptom that appears before the onset of a more serious illness

Prodromal signs and symptoms (rash, fever) appear before the actual illness (such as chickenpox) and signal its onset. Altered mood, fatigue, flashes of light, or stiff muscles may accompany the prodromal migraine aura that occurs before the actual headache.

117

pro-

before, forward

prolapse: sliding forward or downward

The suffix -lapse means to slide, sag, or fall.

118

pros-

before, forward

prosthesis: an artificial limb

An artificial limb is a prosthesis.

119

re-

back, again

relapse: sliding or falling back; as in recurrence of symptoms or decline after apparent recovery

A disease or its signs and symptoms return after an apparent recovery.

120

re-

back, again

remission: disappearance of symptoms of a disease

Signs and symptoms lessen and the patient feels better. Remission may be spontaneous or the result of treatment. In some cases a permanent remission means the disease is cured.

121

re-

back, again

recombinant DNA: insertion of a gene (region of DNA) from an organism into the DNA of another organism

Genetic engineering uses recombinant DNA techniques.

122

retro-

behind, backwards

retroperitoneal: pertaining to behind the peritoneum (membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity)

123

retro-

behind, backwards

retroflexion: bending backwards

An abnormal position of an organ, such as the uterus, bent or tilted backward.

124

sub-

under

subcutaneous: pertaining to under the skin

125

supra-

above, upper

suprapubic: pertaining to above the pubic bones

The pubis is one of a pair of pubic bones that forms the anterior part of the pelvic (hip) bone.

126

syn-, sym-

together, with

syndactyly: fusion of fingers or toes

A hereditary, congenital anomaly of fingers or toes.

127

syn, sym-

together, with

synthesis: combination of simple substances to create something new and more complex

In protein synthesis, complex proteins are built up from simpler amino acids.

128

syn-, sym-

together, with

syndrome: group of symptoms that occur together indicating a particular condition or disorder

129

syn-, sym-

together, with

symbiosis: close association between organisms of different species or a state in which two people are emotionally dependent on each other

130

syn-, sym-

together, with

symmetry: equality of parts, literally measured together

Equality of parts on opposite sides of the body. What is asymmetry?

131

syn-, sym-,

together, with

symphysis: Bones that grow together separated by a piece of fibrocartilage. The pubic symphysis of the pelvis is an example.

A symphysis is a joint in which the bony surfaces are firmly united by a layer of fibrocartilage.

132

tachy-

fast

tachypnea: excessively fast breathing

133

trans-

across, through

transfusion: transfer of blood from one person to another.

134

trans-

across, through

transurethral: pertaining to across or through the urethra

135

ultra-

beyond, excess

ultrasonography: the use of high frequency sound waves to produce a record or a picture of an organ or tissue

136

uni-

one

unilateral: pertaining to one side

Decks in Medical Terminology, LOM Class (88):