Chap 15, Pathology, Joints Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology, LOM > Chap 15, Pathology, Joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 15, Pathology, Joints Deck (31)
1

arthritis

Inflammation of any joint.

2

Some of the most common forms of arthritis are:

ankylosing spondylitis
gouty arthritis (gout)
osteoarthritis (OA)
rheumatoid arthritis

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ankylosing spondylitis

Chronic inflammatory joint disease (progressive arthritis) involving the backbones; marked by stiffness and eventual fusion (ankylosis) of involved joints.

4

gouty arthritis (gout)

Inflammation and painful swelling of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the blood and uric acid crystals deposited in joints.

5

osteoarthritis (OA)

Progressive, degenerative joint disease with loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone (formation of osteophytes, or bone spurs) at articular surfaces (joints).

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rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

Chronic joint condition with inflammation and pain; caused by an autoimmune reaction against joint tissue, particularly the synovial membrane.

7

bunion

Enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint).

8

hallux

another name for a bunion

9

valgus

describing an abnormal position in which a part of a limb is bent or twisted outward, away from the midline, such as the heel of the foot in talipes valgus (splayfoot) or abnormal angulation of the toe

10

carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

Compression of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist. The compression results from swelling and/or inflammation of the flexor tendons. The thumb, the index and long (middle) fingers, and the radial half of the ring finger become dysesthetic (numb).

11

dislocation

Displacement of a bone from its joint.

12

ganglion cyst

Fluid-filled sac arising from joint capsules or tendons, typically in the hand. Most common in the wrist, but can occur in the shoulder, knee, hip, or ankle.

13

herniation of an intervertebral disc (disk)

Abnormal protrusion of an intervertebral disc into the spinal canal or spinal nerves. Condition is commonly referred to as "slipped disc".

14

sciatica

Pain radiating down the leg. Sciatica refers to pain or discomfort associated with the sciatic nerve. This nerve runs from the lower part of the spinal cord, down the back of the leg, to the foot.

15

microdiskectomy

debulking of a herniated nucleus pulposus (nucleus pulposus = herniating part of a disc/disk) using an operating microscope or loupe for magnification.

16

Herniation of an intervertebral disk

The condition is also known as herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP).

17

Composition of disk (vertebra)

Annulus fibrosus and Nucleus pulposus.

18

Lyme disease (Lyme arthritis)

Chronic, recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgias, neurologic and cardiac symptoms, and malaise; cause is a bacterium carried by a deer tick first reported in Old Lyme, Connecticut.

19

sprain

Trauma to a joint with pain, swelling, and injury to ligaments without rupture.

20

strain

Muscle injury involving overstretching of muscles with pain and swelling. RICE is used to treat strains and sprains.

21

RICE

Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation is used to treat strains and sprains.

22

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, central nervous system (CNS), blood vessels, heart, and lungs. It is marked by a reddish (erythematous) facial rash that resembled the bite of a wolf (lupus).

23

bursitis

Inflammation of a bursa surrounding a joint. Causes of this periarticular condition may be related to stress placed on the bursa or to diseases such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis. The bursa becomes inflamed and movement is limited and painful. Intrabursal injection of corticosteroids and also rest and splinting of the limb are helpful in treatment.

24

achondroplasia

This is an inherited condition in which the bones of the arms and legs fail to normal size because of a defect in cartilage and bone formation. Dwarfism results, characterized by short limbs and a normal-sized head and trunk (achondroplastic dwarfism).

25

chondromalacia

Softening of cartilage.

26

chondroma

Benign tumor of cartilage.

27

Chondromalacia patellae

is a softening and roughening of the articular cartilaginous surface of the kneecap, resulting in pain, a grating sensation, and mechanical "catching" behind the patella with joint movement.

28

synovitis

Inflammation of the synovial membrane lining the synovial joint.

29

tenosynovitis

Inflammation of a tendon and its sheath or covering.

30

tendinitis

Inflammation of tendons; tendonitis.

31

spinal stenosis

Narrowing of the neural (spinal) canal in the lumbar spine. Symptoms (pain, paresthesias, urinary retention, bowel incontinence) come from compression of the cauda equina (nerves that spread out from the lower end of the spinal cord like a horse's tail).

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