Chap 5 & 6, Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology, LOM > Chap 5 & 6, Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 5 & 6, Digestive System Deck (185)
1

an/o

anus

2

perianal

Pert. to surrounding the anus

3

append/o

appendix

4

appendectomy

removal or excision of the appendix

5

bucc/o

cheek

6

buccal mucosa

mucous membrane lining the cheek

A mucosa is a mucous membrane lining cavities or canals that open to the outside of the body.

7

cec/o

cecum

8

cecal

Pert. to the cecum, which is the first part of the the large intestine (colon).

9

celi/o

belly, abdomen

10

celiac

Pert. to the abdomen.

11

abdomin/o

abdomen

12

lapar/o

abdomen

13

cheil/o

lip

14

cheilosis

Abnormal condition of the lip.

15

labi/o

lip

16

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

17

cholecystectomy

Removal (excision, resection) of the gallbladder.

18

chol/e

gall, bile

19

choledoch/o

common bile duct

20

choledochotomy

Incision of the common bile duct.

21

col/o

colon

22

colostomy

New opening of the colon through the abdominal wall to the outside of the body.

23

-stomy

The suffix -stomy, when used with a combining form for an organ, means an opening to the outside of the body.

24

-stoma

A stoma is an opening between an organ and the surface of the body.

examples:
1) sigmoid colostomy,
2) ileostomy,
3) ileostomy stoma

25

sigmoid colostomy

After resection of the rectum and part of the sigmoid colon. The stoma is at the end of the colon and attached to the abdominal wall.

26

Ileostomy

After resection of the entire colon. The ileum is drawn through the abdominal wall to form an ileostomy stoma.

27

colon/o

colon

28

colonic

Pert. to the colon.

29

colonoscopy

Visual endoscopic examination of the colon.

30

dent/i

tooth

31

dentibuccal

Pert. to the cheek and teeth.

32

odont/o

tooth

33

duoden/o

duodenum

34

duodenal

Pert. to the duodenum.

35

duodenum

First part of the small intestine.

36

cecum

Fist part of the large intestine.

37

enter/o

Intestines, usually small intestine.

38

enterocolitis

Inflammation of the small intestine and colon.

39

enteroenterostomy

New opening between two previously unconnected parts of the small intestine.

40

anastomosis

Any surgical connection between two parts, such as vessels, ducts, or bowel segments:
ana = up,
stom = opening,
-sis = state of

41

ana-

up; apart; backward; again, anew

42

stom

opening

43

-sis

state of

44

mesentery

Membrane that holds the intestine together. Part of the double fold of the peritoneum that stretches around the organs in the abdomen, the mesentery holds the organs in place. Literally, it lies in the middle (mes-) of the intestines, a membrane attaching the intestines to the muscle wall at the back of the abdomen.

45

parenteral

Pertaining to by some route other than through the gastrointestinal tract, as by intravenous injection.

Par (from para-) means apart from in this term.

46

parenteral nutrition

An intravenous line brings parenteral nutrition directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the intestinal tract (enteral nutrition). Parenteral injections may be subcutaneous or intramuscular as well.

47

What are two parts of the mesentery?

The omentum and mesocolon. The omentum actually hangs down like an apron over the intestines.

48

esophag/o

esophagus

49

esophageal

Pert. to the esophagus.

50

faci/o

face

51

facial

Pert. to the face.

52

gastr/o

stomach

53

gastrostomy

New opening of the stomach through the abdominal wall to the outside of the body.

54

gingiv/o

gums

55

gingivitis

Inflammation of gums.

56

gloss/o

tongue

57

hypoglossal

Pert. to under the tongue.

58

lingu/o

tongue

59

hepat/o

liver

60

hepatoma

Tumor of the liver.
Also called hepatocellular carcinoma.

61

hepatomegaly

Enlargement of the liver.

62

ile/o

ileum

63

ileum

The third part of the small intestine.

64

ileocecal sphincter

Ring of muscles that are between the ileum and the cecum (1st part of the lg. intestine).

Also called the ileocecal valve.

65

ileitis

Inflammation of the ileum, the 3rd part of the small intestine.

66

ileostomy

New opening of the ileum to the outside of the body.

67

jejun/o

jejunum

68

jejunum

Second part of the small intestine.

69

choledochojejunostomy

Surgical anastomosis (creation of a new opening) between the common bile duct and the jejunum.

70

gastrojejunostomy

New surgical connection (anastomosis) between the stomach and the jejunum (2nd part of the small intestine).

71

labi/o

lip

72

labial

Pert. to the lip.

73

lapar/o

abdomen

74

laparoscopy

Process of visually examining the contents of the abdomen using an endoscope.

75

lingu/o

tongue

76

sublingual

Pert. to under the tongue.

77

mandibul/o

lower jaw, mandible

78

submandibular

Pert. to under the lower jaw (mandible).

79

odont/o

tooth

80

orthodontist

Dentist specializing in straightening teeth.

81

orth/o

straight

82

periodontist

Dentist specializing in treating the gums.

83

endodontist

A dentist specializing in the inner parts of the mouth.

84

or/o

mouth

85

oral

Pert. to the mouth.

86

palat/o

palate, roof of the mouth

87

palatoplasty

Surgical repair of the palate (roof of the mouth). Procedure to repair cleft palate and cleft lip; repair of a cleft plate.

88

pancreat/o

pancreas

89

pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas.

90

peritone/o

peritoneum (double-folded membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity)

91

peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum.

92

pharyngeal

Pert. to the throat or pharynx.

93

palatopharyngoplasty

Surgical repair of the pharynx and palate.

94

proct/o

anus and rectum

95

proctologist

Specialist in the study of the anus and the rectum.

96

pylor/o

pyloric sphincter

97

pyloroplasty

Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter.

98

pyloric sphincter

Ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum. It is normally closed, but opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it.

99

rect/o

rectum

100

rectum

Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus.

101

-cele

hernia

102

rectocele

Hernia of the rectum.

103

sialaden/o

salivary gland

104

sialadenitis

Inflammation of a salivary glad.

105

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

106

sigmoid colon

Fourth and last, S-Shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum.

107

sigmoidoscopy

Visual endoscopic examination of the sigmoid colon.

108

stomat/o

mouth

109

stomatitis

Inflammation of the mouth.

110

uvul/o

uvula

111

uvula

Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate.

112

uvulectomy

Removal (excision) of the uvula.

113

amyl/o

starch

114

-ase

enzyme

115

amylase

An enzyme that digests (breaks down) starches into simpler substances (such as sugars).

116

bil/i

gall, bile

117

biliary tract

Inclues the organs (liver and gallbladder) and ducts (hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts) that secrete, store, and empty bile into the duodenum.

118

biliary

Pert. to bile or bile ducts. Bile ducts empty bile into the small intestine (duodenum).

119

bilirubin/o

bilirubin (bile pigment)

120

hyperbilirubinemia

High levels of bilirubin (yellow/orange pigment) in the bloodstream; jaundice.

121

chol/e

gall, bile

122

lith/o

stone or calculus

123

-iasis

abnormal condition

124

cholelithiasis

Abnormal condition of stones (gallstones) in the gallbladder.

Gallstones in the gallbladder.

125

chlorhydr/o

hydrochloric acid

126

achlorhydria

Absence of hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice.

Absence of gastric juice is associated with gastric carcinoma.

127

gluc/o

sugar

128

gluconeogenesis

Process of producing new sugar from fats and proteins; occurs mainly in the liver.

129

glyc/o

sugar

130

hyperglycemia

High levels of sugar in the bloodstream; often associated with diabetes mellitus.

131

glycogen/o

glycogen, animal starch

132

glycogenolysis

Breakdown of glycogen to release sugar. Liver cells change glycogen back to glucose when blood sugar levels drop.

133

lip/o

fat, lipid

134

lipoma

Benign tumor of fatty tissue.

135

lith/o

stone

136

lithogenesis

Formation of stone (calculi).

137

prote/o

protein

138

protease

Enzyme that digests protein.

139

py/o

pus

140

pyorrhea

Discharge of pus from gums. Periodontitis; an advanced stage of periodontal disease (gingivitis).

141

sial/o

saliva, salivary

142

Sialolith

Salivary gland stone; lodged in a salivary gland or duct.

143

steat/o

fat

144

steatorrhea

Discharge of fat in the feces due to improper digestion and malabsorption of fat.

145

-ase

enzyme

146

lipase

Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.

147

-chezia

defecation, elimination of wastes

148

hematochezia

Passage of bright red blood from the rectum.

149

-iasis

abnormal condition

150

choledocholithiasis

Abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct.

151

-prandial

meal

152

postprandial

After meals.

153

-ectasis, -ectasia

dilation, (dilatation), widening

154

cholangi/o

bile duct (vessel).

155

cholangiectasis

Abnormal widening or dilation of a bile vessel (bile duct). This condition is secondary to bile duct obstruction.

156

-emesis

vomiting

157

hematemesis

Vomiting blood. Bright red blood is vomited, often associated with esophageal varices or peptic ulcer.

158

-pepsia

digestion

159

dyspepsia

Painful digestion; indigestion.

160

-phagia

eating, swallowing

161

polyphagia

Excessive appetite and uncontrolled eating. Excessive eating.

162

-plasty

surgical repair

163

abdominoplasty

Surgical repair of the abdomen. Commonly referred to as a "tummy tuck."

164

dysphagia

Difficulty in swallowing.

165

-ptysis

spitting

166

hemoptysis - from the respiratory tract and lungs

Spitting up blood from the respiratory tract. A sign of bleeding and disease within the bronchial tubes and lungs.

167

hematemesis

Vomiting blood, a sign of bleeding from the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract.

168

-rrhage, rrhagia

bursting forth (of blood)

169

hemorrhage

Bursting forth or excessive flow of blood. Loss of a large amount of blood in a short period.

170

gastrorrhagia

Loss of blood from the stomach and jejunum.

171

-rrhaphy

suture

172

herniorrhaphy

Suture (stitching or sewing up) a hernia.

Hernioplasty is a synonym.

Tenorrhaphy (ten = tendon) is another common use of this suffix.

173

-rrhea

flow, discharge of various substances:

* rhinorrhea - mucus from the nose
* pyorrhea - pus from the gums
* menorrhea - menstrual (men/o) blood from the uterine lining
* leukorrhea - white, yellowish fluid from the vagina

174

diarrhea

Frequent passage of loose watery stools.

175

-spasm

involuntary contraction of muscles

176

pylorospasm

Sudden involuntary contraction of muscles at the pyloric sphincter.

177

bronchospasm

Abnormal narrowing with obstruction of the lumen of the bronchi due to spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle. A chief characteristic of bronchitis and asthma.

178

-stasis

stopping, controlling

179

cholestasis

Stoppage of bile flow.

180

-stenosis

narrowing, tightening

181

pyloric stenosis

Narrowing of the pyloric sphincter. This is a congenital defect in newborns blocking the flow of food into the small intestine.

182

-tresia

opening

183

atresia

Absence of a normal opening.

184

esophageal atresia

Congenital absence of the normal opening from the esophagus to the stomach. The esophagus does not connect with the stomach. A tracheoesophageal fistula often accompanies this abnormality.

185

biliary atresia

Congenital hypoplasia or nonformation of bile ducts causes neonatal cholestasis and jaundice.

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