Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (95)

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31

## Naturalistic observation can also be used with __ __

### Correlational research

32

## Define correlation

### A measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together, & thus of how well either factor predicts the other

33

## Define correlation coefficient

### Statistical measure of a relationship: reveals how closely 2 things vary together & how well either one predicts the other. Ranges from -1 to +1

34

## Define scatterplot (aka: scatter gram & scatter diagram)

### A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of 2 variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the 2 variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation

35

## Little scatter indicates __ correlation

### High

36

## Define positive correlation

### 2 sets of scores tend to rise or fall together

37

## Define negative correlation

### 2 things relate inversely (1 goes up, other goes down)

38

## Positive and negative correlations have nothing to do with the __ or __. Correlation indicates a __ __

### StrengthWeaknessStatistical relationship

39

## We recall & notice instances that __ our beliefs. Illusory correlations explain ___. We ignore __ information. We __ ourselves by seeing correlation with a __ event when its not there

### ConfirmSuperstitionsEssentialDeceiveRandom

40

## Correlation indicates the possibility of a __ __ relationship, but it doesn't prove __

### Cause-effectCausation

41

## Define illusory correlation

### The perception of a relationship where none exists

42

## To isolate cause and effect, psychologists statistically __ other factors & remove __

### ControlDifferences

43

## __ __ often don't look random, & get over interpreted. Some events seem so __, we struggle to come up with an __. With a large enough sample, any __ thing is likely to happen

### Random sequencesExtraordinaryExplanationOutrageous

44

## Define experiment

### A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable).

45

## By __ __ of participants, the experimenter aims to control other __ __ and hold constant other factors

### Random assignmentRelevant factors

46

## __ __ infants have higher intelligence scores than __ __ ones

### Breast fedFormula fed

47

## __ show naturally occurring relationships, __ manipulate factors. If a behavior changes when an __ factor is varied, then we know the factor is having an effect

### CorrelationsExperimentsExperimental

48

## Define double-blind procedure

### Experimental procedure in which both the research participants & the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo

49

## Double-blind procedure is commonly used in __ __ studies

### Drug-evaluation

50

## Define placebo effect

### Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent

51

## Define control condition

### Condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition & serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

52

## Define experimental condition

### Condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

53

## Define independent variable

### The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

54

## Define random assignment

### Assigning participants to experimental & control conditions by chance, thus minimizing pre existing differences between those assigned to different groups

55

## Experiments help evaluate __ programs. They aim to manipulate an __ variable, measure the __ variable, & control all other __

### SocialIndependentDependentVariables

56

## Define dependent variable

### The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

57

## Doubt __, __ numbers; apply statistical principles to __

### Big, undocumentedReasoning

58

## Researchers first task is to organize gathered __. Look at __ labels & __ on bar graphs because they can be misleading

### DataScaleRanges

59

## Define mode

### The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

60