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31

Naturalistic observation can also be used with __ __

Correlational research

32

Define correlation

A measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together, & thus of how well either factor predicts the other

33

Define correlation coefficient

Statistical measure of a relationship: reveals how closely 2 things vary together & how well either one predicts the other. Ranges from -1 to +1

34

Define scatterplot (aka: scatter gram & scatter diagram)

A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of 2 variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the 2 variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation

35

Little scatter indicates __ correlation

High

36

Define positive correlation

2 sets of scores tend to rise or fall together

37

Define negative correlation

2 things relate inversely (1 goes up, other goes down)

38

Positive and negative correlations have nothing to do with the __ or __. Correlation indicates a __ __

StrengthWeaknessStatistical relationship

39

We recall & notice instances that __ our beliefs. Illusory correlations explain ___. We ignore __ information. We __ ourselves by seeing correlation with a __ event when its not there

ConfirmSuperstitionsEssentialDeceiveRandom

40

Correlation indicates the possibility of a __ __ relationship, but it doesn't prove __

Cause-effectCausation

41

Define illusory correlation

The perception of a relationship where none exists

42

To isolate cause and effect, psychologists statistically __ other factors & remove __

ControlDifferences

43

__ __ often don't look random, & get over interpreted. Some events seem so __, we struggle to come up with an __. With a large enough sample, any __ thing is likely to happen

Random sequencesExtraordinaryExplanationOutrageous

44

Define experiment

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable).

45

By __ __ of participants, the experimenter aims to control other __ __ and hold constant other factors

Random assignmentRelevant factors

46

__ __ infants have higher intelligence scores than __ __ ones

Breast fedFormula fed

47

__ show naturally occurring relationships, __ manipulate factors. If a behavior changes when an __ factor is varied, then we know the factor is having an effect

CorrelationsExperimentsExperimental

48

Define double-blind procedure

Experimental procedure in which both the research participants & the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo

49

Double-blind procedure is commonly used in __ __ studies

Drug-evaluation

50

Define placebo effect

Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent

51

Define control condition

Condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition & serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

52

Define experimental condition

Condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

53

Define independent variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

54

Define random assignment

Assigning participants to experimental & control conditions by chance, thus minimizing pre existing differences between those assigned to different groups

55

Experiments help evaluate __ programs. They aim to manipulate an __ variable, measure the __ variable, & control all other __

SocialIndependentDependentVariables

56

Define dependent variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

57

Doubt __, __ numbers; apply statistical principles to __

Big, undocumentedReasoning

58

Researchers first task is to organize gathered __. Look at __ labels & __ on bar graphs because they can be misleading

DataScaleRanges

59

Define mode

The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

60

Define a measure of central tendency

A single score that represents a whole set of scores