Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (95)
The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores & then dividing by the number of scores
The middle score in a distribution; half above & half below
What are the 3 measures of central tendency?
Mode, mean, & median
A __ distribution makes the mean biased by a few __ scores
Define standard deviation
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Averages from scores with __ variability are more reliable than averages based on scores with __ variability
The difference between the highest & lowest scores in a distribution
Measures of variation better gauge whether scores are __ __ or __
__ samples are better than __ samples. __ __ observations are more reliable than those that are __ __. __ cases are better than __. Generalizations based on a few unrepresentative cases are __
When averages from 2 samples are reliable, then their difference is likely to be __. When averages are reliable & the difference is large, it's __ __
Define statistical significance
Statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Statistical significance indicates the __ that a result will happen by __. Doesn't indicate the __ of the result
Experimenters intend labs to be a __ __. Purpose of experiments is not to __ __ exact behaviors, but to test __ __. Resulting principles help explain __ __.
Simplified realityRe-createTheoretical principlesMany behaviors
Psychologists concerns lie with __ __ that explain many __
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, & traditions shared by a large group of people & transmitted from one generation to the next
Psychologists study animals to understand how different species __, __, & __. Also to learn about __. Animal experiments lead to treatments for __ __
The same __ __ guide people everywhere. All languages share deep principles of __ even with variations. We are like __ others, __ others, & __ other
In conversations __ build relationships, __ give info and advice. __ & __ are overwhelmingly similar
WomenMenFemales & males
Issue: is it right to place well-being of __ above __. What __ should protect the animals?
Describe the animal protection movement
Protests use of animal in medical, biological, & psychological research. Advocate naturalistic observation over lab experiments
The issue with animal protection movement is compassion for __ vs compassion for __
What are the guidelines set to protect animals?
Mandate ensuring comfort, health, & humane treatment of animals, & of minimizing infection, illness, & pain of animal subjects
What are the ethical principles set for experiments with people?
Obtain informed consent of potential participants, protect them from harm & discomfort, treat information about individual participants confidentially, & fully explain the research afterward
Most psychological research involves no __. Occasionally researchers temporarily use __ to understand violence
Some see psychology as just __ __, others feel it's becoming __ __
Common senseDangerously powerful
__ affect what we study, how we study it, & how we interpret results. __ describe & __ evaluate. Psychology can help us __ goals, but cannot __ which goals
Psychology has the power to __ but its purpose is to __. Psychologists explore ways to __ learning, creativity, & compassion. Psychology speaks to many __ __ & __ __
Deceive EnlightenEnhanceWorld problemsDeepest longings
Questions scientific objectivity. Says scientific concepts are socially constructed fictions
Psychologists agree important questions lie beyond science's __ & beliefs __ __, but they believe there's a __ __ out there
ReachShape perceptionsReal world