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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (95)
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61

Define mean

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores & then dividing by the number of scores

62

Define median

The middle score in a distribution; half above & half below

63

What are the 3 measures of central tendency?

Mode, mean, & median

64

A __ distribution makes the mean biased by a few __ scores

SkewedExtreme

65

Define standard deviation

A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

66

Averages from scores with __ variability are more reliable than averages based on scores with __ variability

LowHigh

67

Define range

The difference between the highest & lowest scores in a distribution

68

Measures of variation better gauge whether scores are __ __ or __

Packed togetherDispersed

69

__ samples are better than __ samples. __ __ observations are more reliable than those that are __ __. __ cases are better than __. Generalizations based on a few unrepresentative cases are __

RepresentativeBiasedLess-variableMore-variableMoreFewerUnreliable

70

When averages from 2 samples are reliable, then their difference is likely to be __. When averages are reliable & the difference is large, it's __ __

ReliableStatistically significant

71

Define statistical significance

Statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

72

Statistical significance indicates the __ that a result will happen by __. Doesn't indicate the __ of the result

LikelihoodChanceImportance

73

Experimenters intend labs to be a __ __. Purpose of experiments is not to __ __ exact behaviors, but to test __ __. Resulting principles help explain __ __.

Simplified realityRe-createTheoretical principlesMany behaviors

74

Psychologists concerns lie with __ __ that explain many __

General principlesBehaviors

75

Define culture

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, & traditions shared by a large group of people & transmitted from one generation to the next

76

Psychologists study animals to understand how different species __, __, & __. Also to learn about __. Animal experiments lead to treatments for __ __

LearnThinkBehavePeopleHuman diseases

77

The same __ __ guide people everywhere. All languages share deep principles of __ even with variations. We are like __ others, __ others, & __ other

Underlying processesGrammarAllSomeNo

78

In conversations __ build relationships, __ give info and advice. __ & __ are overwhelmingly similar

WomenMenFemales & males

79

Issue: is it right to place well-being of __ above __. What __ should protect the animals?

HumansAnimalsSafeguards

80

Describe the animal protection movement

Protests use of animal in medical, biological, & psychological research. Advocate naturalistic observation over lab experiments

81

The issue with animal protection movement is compassion for __ vs compassion for __

AnimalsPeople

82

What are the guidelines set to protect animals?

Mandate ensuring comfort, health, & humane treatment of animals, & of minimizing infection, illness, & pain of animal subjects

83

What are the ethical principles set for experiments with people?

Obtain informed consent of potential participants, protect them from harm & discomfort, treat information about individual participants confidentially, & fully explain the research afterward

84

Most psychological research involves no __. Occasionally researchers temporarily use __ to understand violence

StressStress

85

Some see psychology as just __ __, others feel it's becoming __ __

Common senseDangerously powerful

86

__ affect what we study, how we study it, & how we interpret results. __ describe & __ evaluate. Psychology can help us __ goals, but cannot __ which goals

ValuesLabelsLabelsReachChoose

87

Psychology has the power to __ but its purpose is to __. Psychologists explore ways to __ learning, creativity, & compassion. Psychology speaks to many __ __ & __ __

Deceive EnlightenEnhanceWorld problemsDeepest longings

88

Describe post-modernism

Questions scientific objectivity. Says scientific concepts are socially constructed fictions

89

Psychologists agree important questions lie beyond science's __ & beliefs __ __, but they believe there's a __ __ out there

ReachShape perceptionsReal world

90

Jurors in capital punishment cases don't represent the __ __

Greater population