Chapter 11: Pathology, Lab Tests Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Pathology, Lab Tests Deck (52):
1

arrhythmias

abnormal heart rhythms (dysrhythmias)

2

bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block)

failure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)

3

flutter

rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria

4

fibrillation

very rapid, random, inefficient and irregular contractions of the heart (350 beats or more per minute)

5

palpitations

uncomfortable sensations in the chest from missed heartbeats

6

palpation

to touch, feel or examine with the hands and fingers

7

congenital heart disease

abnormalities in the heart at birth

8

coarctation of the aorta (CoA)

narrowing (coarctation) of the aorta

9

patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

passageway (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open (patent) after birth

10

septal defects

small holes in the wall between the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects)

11

tetralogy of Fallot

congenital malformation involving four (tetra-) distinct heart defects

12

congestive heart failure (CHF)

heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood

13

coronary artery disease (CAD)

disease of the arteries surrounding the heart

14

endocarditis

inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

15

hypertensive heart disease

high blood pressure affecting the heart

16

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

improper closure of the mitral valve

17

murmur

extra heart sound, heard between normal beats

18

pericarditis

inflammation of the membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart

19

rheumatic heart disease

heart disease caused by rheumatic fever

20

aneurysm

local widening (dilation) of an arterial wall

21

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

blood clot (thrombus) forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb

22

hypertension (HTN)

high blood pressure

23

peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

blockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys and other organs

24

raynaud disease

recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes

25

varicose veins

abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs

26

BNP test

measurement of BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) in blood

27

cardiac biomarkers

chemicals are measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack

28

lipid tests (lipid profile)

measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) in a blood sample

29

lioprotein electrophoresis

lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated and measured in a blood sample

30

angiography

x-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material

31

computed tomography angiography (CTA)

three-dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computed tomography (64-slice CT scanner)

32

digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels

33

electron beam computed tomography (EBCT or EBT)

electron beans and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early CAD

34

Doppler ultrasound studies

sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels

35

echocardiography (ECHO)

echoes generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart

36

position emission tomography (PET) scan

images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive glucose

37

technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan

technetium Tc 99m sestamibi injected intravenously is taken up in cardiac tissue, where it is detected by scanning

38

thallium 201 scan

concentration of radioactive thallium is measured to give information about blood supply to the heart muscle

39

cardiac MRI

images of the heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field

40

cardiac catheterization

thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery

41

electrocardiography (ECG)

recording of electricity flowing though the heart

42

Holter monitering

an ECG device is worn during a 24-hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias

43

stress test

exercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion (stress)

44

catheter ablation

brief delivery of radiofrequency energy to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias

45

coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)

arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages

46

defibrillation

brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to sop dysrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation)

47

endarterectomy

surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery

48

extracorporeal circulation

heart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is repaired

49

heart transplantation

a donor heart is transferred to a recipient

50

percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place

51

thrombolytic therapy

drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis

52

transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)

placement of a balloon-expandable aortic heart valve into the body via a catheter

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