Chapter 13: Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13: Pathology Deck (32):
1

anemia

deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin

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aplastic anemia

failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow

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hemolytic anemia

reduction in red cells due to excessive destruction

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pernicious anemia

lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the bloodstream

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sickle cell anemia

hereditary disorder or abnormal hemoglobin producing sickle-shaped erythrocytes and hemolysis

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thalassemia

inherited defect in ability to produce hemoglobin, leading to hypochromia

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hemochromatosis

excess iron deposits throughout the body

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polycythemia vera

general increase in red blood cells (erythremia)

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hemophilia

excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of blood clotting factors (factor VIII or IX) necessary for blood clotting

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purpura

multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin

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leukemia

increase in cancerous white blood cells (leukocytes)

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four types of leukemia

acute myelogenous (myelocytic) leukemia (AML)
acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
chronic myelogenous (myelocytic) leukemia (CML)
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

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granulocytosis

abnormal increase in granulocytes in the blood

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mononucleosis

infectious disease marked by increased numbers of mononuclear leukocytes and enlarges cervical lymph nodes

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multiple myeloma

malignant neoplasm of bone marrow

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antiglobulin test (Coombs test)

test for the presence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes

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bleeding time

time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound (normal time is less than 8 minutes)

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coagulation time

time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube (normal time is less than 15minutes)

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complete blood count (CBC)

determination of numbers of blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and red cell values--MCH, MCV, MCHC

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erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

speed at which erythrocytes settle out of plasma

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hematocrit (Hct)

percentage of erythrocytes in a volume of blood

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hemoglobin test (H, Hg, Hgb, HGB)

total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of peripheral blood

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platelet count

number of platelets per cubic millimeter (mm3) or microliter or blood

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prothrombin time (PT)

test of the ability of blood to clot

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red blood cell count (RBC)

number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter or microlitre of blood

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red blood cell morphology

microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to determine the shape of individual red cells

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white blood cell count (WBC)

number of leukocytes per cubin millimeter or microliter of blood

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white blood cell differential [count]

percentages of different types of leukocytes in the blood

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apheresis

separation of blood into component parts and removal of a select portion from the blood

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blood transfusion

whole blood or cells are taken from a donor and infused into a patient

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bone marrow biopsy

microscopic examination of a core of bone marrow removed with a needle

32

hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

peripheral stem cells from a compatible donor are administered to a recipient

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