Chapter 15: Bones Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 15: Bones > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 15: Bones Deck (101):
1

acetabulum

Rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur (thigh bone), forming the hip joint.

2

acromion

Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder. It overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle.

3

articular cartilage

Thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space.

4

bone

Dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton.

5

bone depression

Opening or hollow region serving as a connection for bones, or passageways for blood vessels and nerves.

6

bone process

Enlarged area that extends from bones as an attachment for muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

7

calcium

One of the mineral constituents of bone.

8

cancellous bone

Spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone.

9

cartilage

Flexible, rubbery connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues.

10

collagen

Dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues.

11

compact bone

Hard, dense bone tissue usually found around the outer portion of bones.

12

cranial bones

Skull bones: ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, temporal

13

diaphysis

Shaft, or mid-portion, of a long bone.

14

disc

Flat, round, plate-like structure. An intervertebral disk is a fibrocartilaginous substance between two vertebrae.

15

epiphyseal plate

Cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton.

16

epiphysis

Each end of a long bone; the area beyond the epipshyseal plate.

17

facial bones

Bones of the face: lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, zygomatic.

18

fontanelle

Soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant.

19

foramen magnum

Opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes.

20

harversian canals

Minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone.

21

ligament

Fibrous tissue connecting bones to other bones.

22

malleolus

Round process on both sides of the ankle joint.

23

manubrium

Upper portion of the sternum; articulates with the medial aspect of the clavicle.

24

mastoid process

Round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear.

25

medullary cavity

Central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone.

26

metaphysis

Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) and the epiphyseal plate

27

olecranon

Large process on the proximal end of the ulna; the point of the flexed elbow.

28

orthopedist

Medical doctor who specialized in bone, joint, and muscle conditions.

29

osseous tissue

Bone tissue.

30

ossification

Process of bone formation.

31

osteoblast

Bone cell that helps form bony tissue.

32

osteoclast

Bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue.

33

periosteum

Membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue.

34

phosphorus

Mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium.

35

physiatrist

Medical doctor specializing in rehabilitation.

36

pubic symphysis

Area of confluence (coming together) of the two pubic bones in the pelvis. They are joined by a fibrocartilaginous disc.

37

red bone marrow

Found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis

38

ribs

Twelve pairs of curved bones that form the chest wall. True ribs are the first 7 pairs; false ribs are pairs 8 to 10; floating ribs are pairs 11 and 12

39

sella turcica

Depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located

40

sinus

hollow air cavity within a bone

41

styloid process

pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull

42

suture

immovable joint between bones, such as the skull

43

temporomandibular joint

connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the skull and mandibular bone of the jaw

44

tendon

fibrous connective tissue connecting muscles and bones

45

trabeculae

supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) bone

46

vertebra

individual segement of the spine composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, and lamina, enclosing the neural canal

47

xiphois process

lower, narrow portion of the sternum

48

yellow bone marrow

fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones

49

bone head

rounded end of a bone

50

condyle

rounded knuckle-like process

51

epicondyle

small rounded process above the condyle

52

trochanters

large and small processes for tendon attachments

53

tuberosity (tubercle)

small round elevation where tendons and muscles attach

54

fissure

narrow groove or slit-like opening

55

foramen

opening for blood vessels and nerves

56

fossa

shallow cavity in or on a bone

57

sinus

hollow cavity within bone

58

ethmoid bone

supports nasal cavity and eye sockets

59

frontal bone

forehead; part of eye sockets

60

occipital bone

back and base of skull

61

parietal bones

top and sides of skull

62

sphenoid bone

base of skull and behind eyes (bat shaped bone)

63

temporal bones

lower sdes and back of skull

64

lacrimal bones

corners of each eye

65

mandible

lower jawbone

66

maxillae

upper jawbones

67

nasal bones

bridge and septum of nose

68

vomer

nasal septum (thin, flat bone)

69

zygomatic bones

cheek bones

70

acetabulum

hip socket

71

calcaneus

heel

72

carpals

wrist bones

73

clavicle

collar bone

74

coccyx

tailbone

75

cranium

skull

76

femur

thigh bone

77

fibula

smaller of the two lower leg bones

78

humerus

upper arm bone

79

ilium

upper part of pelvic bone

80

ischium

inferior or lower part of the pelvic bone

81

malleolus

ankle

82

mandible

lower jawbone

83

maxilla

upper jawbone

84

metacarpals

hand bones

85

metatarsals

midfoot bones

86

olecranon

elbow

87

patella

kneecap

88

phalanges

finger and toe bones

89

pubis

anterior part of the pelvic bone

90

radius

forearm bone--thumb side

91

scapula

shoulder blade

92

sternum

breastbone

93

tarsals

hindfoot bones

94

tibia

shin bone--larger of the two lower leg bones

95

ulna

forearm bone--little finger side

96

vertebra

backbone/spine

97

colles

near the wrist at distal end of the radius

98

comminuted

bone is splintered and crushed into several pieces

99

compression

bone collapses or is compressed; occurs in vertebrae

100

greenstick

bone is partially broken; breaks on one surface and bends on another; often occurring in forearm

101

impacted

one fragment is driven firmly into the other; at the head of the femur or head of the humerus

Decks in Medical Terminology Class (65):