Chapter 12: Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: Pathology Deck (61):
1

auscultation

listening to sounds within the body

2

percussion

tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure

3

pleural rub

scratchy sound produced by pleural surfaces rubbing against each other

4

rales (crackles)

fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation (during inhalation) when there is fluid in the alveoli

5

rhonchus
rhonchi

loud rumbling sounds heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum

6

sputum

material expelled from the bronchi, lungs, or upper respiratory tract by spitting

7

stridor

strained high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by the obstruction in the pharynx or larynx

8

wheezes

continuous high-pitched whistling sounds produced during breathing

9

croup

acute viral infection of infants and children with obstruction of the larynx, accompanied by barking cough and stridor

10

diphtheria

acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diphtheria bacterium

11

epistaxis

nosebleed

12

pertussis

whooping cough; highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by bordetella pertussis

13

asthma

chronic bronchial inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction due to bronchial edema and constriction and increased mucus production

14

bronchiectasis

chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection

15

chronic bronchitis

inflammation of bronchi persisting over a long time; type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

16

cystic fibrosis (CF)

inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick mucinous secretions in the respiratory tract that do not drain normally

17

atelectasis

collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of alveoli

18

emphysema

hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls

19

lung cancer

malignant tumour arising from the lungs and bronchi

20

pneumoconiosis

abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection and bronchitis

21

pneumonia

acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction

22

pulmonary abscess

large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs

23

pulmonary edema

fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles

24

pulmonary embolism (PE)

clot or other material lodges in vessels of the lung

25

pulmonary fibrosis

formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs

26

sarcoidosis

chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules (granulomas) develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs

27

tuberculosis (TB)

infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; lungs usually are involved, but any organ in the body may be affected

28

mesothelioma

rare malignant tumour arising in the pleura

29

pleural effusion

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (cavity)

30

pleurisy (pleuritis)

inflammation of the pleura

31

pneumothorax

collection of air in the pleural space

32

anthracosis

coal dust accumulates in the lungs

33

asbestosis

asbestos particles accumulate in the lungs

34

bacillus
bacilli

rod-shaped bacteria (cause of tuberculosis)

35

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

chronic condition of persistent obstruction of air flow through bronchial tubes and lungs

36

cor pulmonale

failure of the right side of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the lungs because of underlying lung disease

37

exudates

fluid, cells and other substances (pus) that filter from cells or capillaries ooze into lesions or areas of inflammation

38

hydrothorax

collection of fluid in the pleural cavity

39

infiltrate

collection of fluid or other material within the lung, as seen on a chest film, CT scan or other radiologic image

40

palliative

relieving symptoms, but not curing the disease

41

paroxysmal

pertaining to a sudden occurence, such as a spasm or seizure

42

pulmonary infarction

area of necrosis

43

purulent

containing pus

44

silicosis

disease due to silica or glass dust in the lungs

45

chest x-ray (CXR)

radiographic image of the thoracic cavity (chest film)

46

computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest

computed-generated series of x-ray images show thoracic structures in cross section and other planes

47

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest

magnetic waves create detailed images of the chest in frontal, lateral (sagittal) and cross-sectional (axial) planes

48

positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung

radioactive glucose is injected and images reveal metabolic activity in the lungs

49

ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan

detection device records radioactivity in the lung after injection of a radioisotape or inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas (xenon)

50

bronchoscopy

fiberoptic endoscope examination of the bronchial tubes

51

endotracheal intubation

placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx and trachea to establish an airway

52

laryngoscopy

visual examination of the voice box

53

lung biopsy

removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination

54

mediastinoscopy

endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum

55

pulmonary function tests (PFTs)

tests that measure the ventilation mechanics of the lungs: airway function, lung volume, and the capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide efficiently

56

thoracentesis

surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space

57

thoracotomy

large surgical incision of the chest

58

thoracoscopy (thorascopy)

visual examination of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope

59

tracheostomy

surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck

60

tuberculin test

determines past or present tuberculous infection based on a positive skin reaction

61

tube thoracostomy

a flexible, plastic chest tube is passed into the pleural space through an opening in the chest

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