Chapter 5: Vocab Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 5: Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5: Vocab Deck (36):
1

Four functions of the body

ingestion
digestion
absorption
elimination

2

enzymes

speed up chemical reactions, aid breakdown

3

triglycerides

three parts fatty acids, one part glycerol

4

rugae

irregular ridges in the mucous membrane covering the anterior portion of the hard palate

5

papillae

small raised areas on the tongue, contain taste buds

6

cementum

covers, protects and supports the dentin in the root

7

periodontal membrane

surrounds cementum and holds the tooth in place in the tooth socket

8

peristalsis

involuntary, progressive, rhythmic contraction of muscles in the wall of the esophagus

9

bolus

mass of food

10

stomach parts

fundus (proximal)
body (middle)
antrum (distal)

11

sphincters

rings of muscle controlling the openings in and out of stomach

12

epiglottis

flap that covers the trachea

13

lower esophageal sphincter

relaxes and allows food to enter stomach

14

pyloric sphincter

allows food to leave the stomach

15

mucosa

mucous membrane

16

pepsin

to begin digestion of proteins

17

feces

stools

18

defecation

expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus

19

villi

microscopic projections

20

bile

thick, orange-black, sometimes greenish fluid
contains cholesterol, bile acids, several bile pigments

21

bilirubin

bile pigment

22

jaundice (hyperbilirubinemia)

yellow discolouration of the skin

23

cystic duct

leads to gallbladder

24

glycogen

starch

25

glycogenolysis

convert stored glycogen back into glucose

26

gluconeogenesis

convert proteins and fats into glucose

27

portal vein

brings blood to the liver from the intestines

28

insulin

hormone produced by endocrine cells of pancreas. transports sugar from blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by liver

29

amino acids

small building blocks of proteins, released wen proteins are digested

30

deglutition

swallowing

31

mastication

chewing

32

hydrochloric acid

substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion

33

emulsification

physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest fat

34

protease

enzyme that digests protein

35

uvula

soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate

36

stomach

muscular organ that recieves food from the esophagus

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