Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (132):
1

abdomin/o

abdomen

2

adip/o

fat

3

anter/o

front

4

bol/o

to cast (throw)

5

cervic/o

neck (of the body or of the uterus)

6

chondr/o

cartilage (type of connective tissue)

7

chrom/o

colour

8

coccyg/o

coccyx (tailbone)

9

crani/o

skull

10

cyt/o

cell

11

dist/o

far. distant

12

dors/o

back portion of the body

13

hist/o

tissue

14

ili/o

ilium (part of the pelvic bone)

15

inguin/o

groin

16

kary/o

nucleus

17

later/o

side

18

lumb/o

lower back (side and back between ribs and the pelvis)

19

medi/o

middle

20

nucle/o

nucleus

21

pelv/i

pelvis, hip region

22

poster/o

back, behind

23

proxim/o

nearest

24

sacr/o

flesh

25

spin/o

spine, backbone

26

thel/o
theli/o

nipple

27

thorac/o

chest

28

trache/o

trachea, windpipe

29

umbilic/o

navel, umbilicus

30

ventr/o

belly side of the body

31

vertebr/o

vertebra(e), backbone(s)

32

viscer/o

internal organs

33

ana-

up

34

cata-

down

35

epi-

above

36

hypo-

below

37

inter-

between

38

meta-

change

39

-eal

pertaining to

40

-iac

pertaining to

41

-ior

pertaining to

42

-ism

process, condition

43

-ose

pertaining to, full of

44

-plasm

formation

45

-somes

bodies

46

-type

picture, classification

47

anterior (ventral)

Front surface of the body.

48

deep

Away from the surface.

49

distal

Far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure.

50

frontal (coronal) plane

Vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions.

51

inferior (caudal)

Below another structure: pertaining to the tail or lower portion of the body.

52

lateral

Pertaining to the side.

53

medial

Pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body.

54

posterior (dorsal)

Back surface of the body.

55

prone

Lying on the belly (dace down, palms down).

56

proximal

Near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure.

57

sagittal (lateral) plane

Lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides. From the Latin sagitta, meaning arrow. The midsagittal plane divides the body into right and left halves.

58

superficial

On the surface.

59

superior (cephalic)

Above another structure; pertaining to the head.

60

supine

Lying on the back (face up, palms up).

61

transverse (axial) plane

Horizontal (cross-sectional) plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions.

62

LLQ

Left lower quadrant.

63

vertebra

Single backbone.

64

vertebrae

Backbones.

65

spinal column

Bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity.

66

spinal cord

Nervous tissue within the spinal cavity.

67

disc

Pad of cartilage between vertebrae.

68

hypochondriac

Right and left upper regions beneath the ribs.

69

epigastric

Middle upper region above the stomach.

70

lumbar

Right and left middle regions near the waist.

71

umbilical

Central region near the waist.

72

inguinal regions

Right and left lower regions near the groin.

73

hypogastric

Middle lower region below the umbilical region.

74

Cervical

Neck region. (C1-C7).

75

Thoracic

Chest region. Each bone is joined to a rib. (T1-T12).

76

Lumbar

Loin (waist) or flank region (between the ribs and hipbone). (L1-L5).

77

Sacral

5 bones are fused to form one bone, the sacrum. (S1-S5).

78

Coccygeal

The coccyx (tailbone) is a small bone composed of 4 fused pieces.

79

abdominal cavity

Space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abdomen.

80

cranial cavity

Space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull. Cranial means pertaining to the skull.

81

diaphragm

Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities. The diaphragm moves up and down and aids in breathing.

82

dorsal (posterior)

Pertaining to the back.

83

mediastinum

Centrally located space outside of and between the lungs.

84

pelvic cavity

Space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs. Pelvic means pertaining to the pelvis, composed of the hip bones surrounding the pelvic cavity.

85

peritoneum

Double-folded membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity.

86

pleura

Doubled-folded membrane surrounding each lung. Pleural means pertaining to the pleura.

87

pleural cavity

Space between the pleural layers.

88

spinal cavity
spinal canal

Space within the spinal column (backbones) containing the spinal cord.

89

thoracic cavity

Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs.

90

ventral (anterior)

Pertaining to the front.

91

Cranial

Brain, pituitary gland.

92

Thoracic

Lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland, aorta (large artery).

93

Pleural cavity
(Part of Thoracic)

space between the folds of the pleura surrounding each lung. The pleura is a double-folded membrane that surrounds the lungs and protects them. If the pleura is inflamed (as in pleuritis, also called pleurisy), the pleural cavity may fill with fluid.

94

Mediastinum
(Part of Thoracic)

centrally located space outside of and between the lungs. It contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, thymus gland, bronchial tubes, and many lymph nodes.

95

Abdominal

The peritoneum is the double-folded membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs situated behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone. Also contains the stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, divides the abdominal and thoracic cavities.

96

Pelvic

Portions of the small and large intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, urethra, and ureters; uterus and vagina in the female.

97

Spinal

Nerves of the spinal cord.

98

adipose tissue

Collection of fat cells.

99

cartilage

Flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints. For example, it surrounds the trachea and forms part of the external ear and nose.

100

epithelial cells

Skin cells that cover the outside of the body and line the internal surfaces of organs.

101

histologist

Specialist in the study of tissues.

102

larynx

"Voice box": located at the upper part of the trachea.

103

pharynx

Throat. The pharynx serves as the common passageway for food (from the mouth going to the esophagus) and air (from the nose to the trachea).

104

pituitary gland

Endocrine gland at the base of the brain.

105

thyroid gland

Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck.

106

trachea

"Windpipe" (tube leading from the throat to the bronchial tubes).

107

ureter

One of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder.

108

urethra

Tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.

109

uterus

The womb. The organ that holds the embryo/fetus as it develops.

110

viscera

Internal organs.

111

Digestive

Mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, intestines (small and large), liver, gallbladder, pancreas.

112

Urinary or excretory

Kidneys, ureters (tubes from the kidneys to the urinary bladder), urinary bladder, urethra (tube from the bladder to the outside of the body).

113

Respiratory

Nose, pharynx, larynx ("voice box"), trachea ("windpipe"), bronchial tubes, lungs (where the exchange of gases takes place).

114

Reproductive (female)

Female: Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus (womb), vagina, mammary glads.

115

Reproductive (male)

Male: Testes and associated tubes, urethra, penis, prostate gland.

116

Endocrine

Thyroid gland (in the neck), pituitary gland (at the base of the brain), sex glands (ovaries and testes), adrenal glands, pancreas (islets of Langerhans), parathyroid glands.

117

Nervous

Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collection of nerves.

118

Circulatory

Heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland.

119

Musculoskeletal

Muscles, bones, and joints.

120

Skin and sense organs

Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous (oil) glands; eye, ear, nose, and tongue.

121

anabolism

Process of building up large proteins from small protein pieces called amino acids.

122

catabolism

Process whereby complex nutrients are broken down to simpler substances and energy is released.

123

cell membrane

Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell.

124

chromosomes

Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes. There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes.

125

cytoplasm

All the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane.

126

DNA

Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell.

127

endoplasmic reticulum

Network of canals within the cytoplasm of the cell. Here, large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces.

128

genes

Regions of DNA within each chromosome.

129

karyotype

Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.

130

metabolism

Total of the chemical processes in a call. It includes catabolism and anabolism.

131

mitochondria

Structures in the cytoplasm that provide the principal source of energy (miniature "power plants") for the cell. Catabolism is the process that occurs in mitochondria. (From the Greek mitos meaning thread, and chondrion meaning granule.)

132

nucleus

Control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.

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