Chapter 13: Relationships Across the Lifespan Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13: Relationships Across the Lifespan Deck (31):

Primary Appraisal

One's initial and immediate reaction to some event or circumstance, as in a child's response to inter parental conflict and the determination of how threatening it is. See also secondary appraisal.


Secondary Appraisal

Cognitive processing of an event judged to be personally threatening or significant; when a child perceives parental conflict as personally threatening, the child's secondary appraisal is an effort to understand why the conflict is happening and wha should be done about it.



A tendency to find fault in oneself for adverse events, often displayed by children in response to parental conflict.


Primary and secondary appraisals are extensions of the ___ theory.




The tendency to react less strongly to a particular stimulus the more one is exposed to it. See also desensitization.



The tendency to become increasingly reactive to a stimulus after repeated presentations of it; for example, children become sensitized to conflict between parents. See also desensitization.


Differential Parental Treatment

Treating the siblings within a family unequally; a strong predictor of sibling rivalry.


Theory of Mind

The recognition that other people have beliefs, knowledge, and desires that are different from one's own.


False Belief Test

A tool to measure the development of theres of mind in children. Children observe two girls, one of whom moves an object while the other is absent. Children are said to possess a theory of mind when they recognize that someone else has access to less information than they do.


The false belief test is also known as the ___ ___ test.



3 defining features of friendships:

1. Voluntary.
2. Reciprocity.
3. Equal status.


A sibling relationship is a child's first real peer relationship. True or false?

False, a friendship is.


Shared Imaginative Play

The creation and inhabiting of fantasy world by children together.


Sociometric Testing

A research technique in which children in a classroom are interviewed individually and asked to name who they like and who they dislike within the group, as a way to measure social standing among peers.


What are the four classifications in sociometric testing?

1. Popular.
2. Rejected.
3. Controversial.
4. Neglected.


Those who are rejected and neglected differ in that...

Those who are rejected are likely to act out, while those who are neglected become withdrawn or depressed.


Popular children initially...

Spoke the least and were the most agreeable.



Sharing a residence with an intimate partner without being married to that partner.


Cohabitation as a precursor to marriage:

Couples engaged/about to be engaged, living together as a step towards getting married.


Cohabitation as coresidential daters:

Romantically involved but had no plans to marry. Moved in independent of serious investment in the relationship.


Cohabitation as trial marriage:

Not engaged and had no plans to, but were open to the idea of marriage and were trying to get an idea of whether it would be worth pursuing.


Cohabitation as substitute marriage:

No intention of marrying, but believed their relationship was permanent.


Selection Effect

An outcome when groups of people differ because of differences in the people who choose to enter those groups. Cohabitation predicts later relationship distress in some studies, for example, not because cohabitation is necessarily harmful for relationships, but because people who choose to cohabit have a higher risk of later relationship distress than people who choose not to cohabit.


Why is it the case that couples who live together before they are married experience lower relationship satisfaction and higher rates of divorce?

Selection effects. Those who are open to the idea of living together before marriage are also open o the idea of divorce.


Do most people plan to get married?

Yes, 90% do.


The age of marriage is ___.



What is the number one reason marriages end?



True or false? Second marriages are more stable than first marriages.

False, they are more unstable.


Why do second marriages fail more readily?

1. Vulnerabilities carried over from first marriage.
2. People who have already divorced are more likely to consider it.
3. Harder to maintain with stepchildren.


More than ___ of people get divorced or separated, but most...

Half, remarry.


Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

The idea that because aging makes people aware of their mortality, they seek situations that promote positive emotions and avoid those that lead to negative emotions. Younger people are more open to new experiences, even if they risk being negative and unpleasant.