Chapter 8: Managing Differences Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8: Managing Differences Deck (67):
1

Conflict

The interference of the goals of one person by another person.

2

What are the two key inferences that can be drawn from Lewin's definition of conflict?

1. Conflict is inevitable, and is more likely with high interdependence and frequent contact.
2. Responses to conflict can vary.

3

What is the most consequential thing about conflicts? When, whether, how, or what?

How.

4

Why were perceptions important to relationship scientists?

There is validity to them.

5

Despite its importance, why did relationships scientists overlook perceptions?

Because they were difficult to measure, whereas directly observable things like words were easier to measure and analyze.

6

What theory would utilize perceptions in measuring conflict?

Social exchange theory.

7

Which theory would utilize operationalizations of behaviours in measuring conflict?

Social learning theory.

8

Most disagreements in relationships are about...

Children.

9

Coding System

In the context of social learning theory, any one of several schemes researchers use for classifying observed behaviours.

10

In the case of a husband and wife arguing about money, what is the husband saying "I get anxious just thinking about money problems?"

Self-Disclosure.

11

In the case of a husband and wife arguing about money, what is the wife saying "I think a lot of our squabbling comes down to one thing: not enough money."

Problem Description.

12

In the case of a husband and wife arguing about money, what is the husband saying "Yep. that's it in a nutshell. Money."

Agreement.

13

In the case of a husband and wife arguing about money, what is the husband saying "I've been thinking about that,. Joe asked me to help him out installing floors for about five hours on Saturdays, and I think I want to take him up on that. It's decent money?"

Positive Solution.

14

In the case of a husband and wife arguing about money, what is the husband saying "You think so? I think we are always squabbling about trivial stuff, like whose turn it is to wash the dog?"

Disagreement.

15

In the case of a husband and wife arguing about money, what is the husband saying "Are you kidding me? We have more money coming in now than we've ever had. The problem does come down to one thing though: your out-of-control spending?"

Criticism.

16

What is criticism when arguing?

When one partner ascribes responsibility for the problem solely to the other partner.

17

Can emotional tone play a part in coding systems?

Yes.

18

Affect

Feeling or emotional expression; the emotional tone of verbal communication.

19

Interrater Reliability

In content analysis and the coding of observational data, the extent to which multiple independent coders agree on how a specific piece of content should be categorized.

20

Unconditional Probabilities

In the context of couple interactions, the likelihood that a specific behaviour will occur regardless of any other behaviours.

21

Conditional Probabilities

In the context of couple interactions, the likelihood of one partner engaging in a specific behaviour in response to a specific behaviour by the other partner.

22

Structural Model of Marital Interaction

The idea that 3 dimensions of behaviour distinguish happy and unhappy couples when they are trying to resolve a relationship problem: the positive and negative degrees of their behaviour, the degree of predictability of behaviours between them, and their ability to exit cycles of reciprocal negative behaviour.

23

Which is more important in interpersonal communication? What we say or how we say it?

How we say it.

24

Cognitive Editing

The tendency in happy couples to respond to a partner's negative behaviours with neutral or even positive behaviours.

25

It has been shown that there is greater linkage between daily events and daily satisfaction ratings for ___ couples, than for ___ couples.

Unhappy, happy.

26

Reactivity Hypothesis

A phenomenon in which unhappy partners are more sensitive and response to immediate events in their relationship, regardless of whether they are positive or negative.

27

Talk Table

A procedure for studying couple interactions during a problem-solving discussion in which they judge how positive and negative they intend their own messages to be and how positive and negative they experience the impact of their partner's messages, thus enabling researchers to specify sources of miscommunication.

28

Demand/Withdraw Pattern

A behavioural sequence common in distressed relationships in which one partner expresses a desire for change and the other partner resists change by disengaging from the interaction.

29

Polarized

Referring to polar opposites; in a personal relationship, a couple is polarized when the two partners adopt opposing viewpoints in an argument.

30

What are the 2 main factors in the demand/withdraw pattern?

1. Women want more change than men do.
2. This pattern is more extreme in people who want the most change -- those in unhappy relationships.

31

Women orient towards ___ connections, while men orient towards ___ connections.

Dyadic, hierarchical.

32

What is the first step for those stuck in a demand/withdraw problem?

Each partner steps back and see how they contribute to the problem.

33

How can negative communication be good in a relationship?

When they have a clear, direct message without ambiguity.

34

What effect does positive emotions have in negative communication?

Can make up for poor communication skills.

35

Can conflict affect physiological health?

Yes, especially concerning stress hormones.

36

Epinephrine

The "fight or flight" hormone responsible for stress.

37

Those who were divorced or in unhappy relationships had ___ levels of epinephrine.

Higher.

38

What are the two basic dimensions of the working models of attachment?

1. Anxiety.
2. Avoidance.

39

How do secure individuals deal with conflict?

Confident in knowledge that they are worthwhile and others are trustworthy and well-intentioned, are skilled problem solvers. Unlikely to be threatened by partner's emotions, or the idea of having to discuss problems, nor will they be a threat to the partner.

40

How do anxious individuals deal with conflict?

Threatened by conflict because it can get in the way of the high level of approval and support they need from a close partner. Assume worst about conflicts, obsess about them, and express their feelings of anxiety and hostility because they feel threatened.

41

How do avoidant individuals deal with conflict?

See others as unreliable, unavailable, and uncaring. Threatened their need to keep distance from intimacy and emotion. Calls attention to possibility that they are vulnerable. Work to avoid conflict and minimize partners' concerns. Tend to defend themselves and distance themselves from partner.

42

Do harsh negative behaviours always lead to the deterioration of relationships?

Yes.

43

Do less intense negative behaviours always lead to the deterioration of relationships?

Not necessarily.

44

Family Sociology Perspective

An approach to studying aggression in couples and families using large-scale surveys; it underestimates the level of very severe aggression.

45

Advocacy Perspective

An approach to understanding and helping women affected by domestic violence, particularly intimate terrorism.

46

Why was there ambiguity between the family sociology perspective and the advocacy perspective?

Because each of the perspectives gathered data in different ways.

47

Situational Couple Violence

A form of physical aggression between intimate partners that is usually mutual, widespread, and the result of emotional escalation.

48

Intimate Terrorism

A form of aggression by one partner to dominate the other.

49

Violent Resistance

An unusual form of aggression in which the victim of severe abuse fights back, even to the point at which the perpetrator is killed.

50

What type of IPV is proactive, and what type is reactive?

Intimate terrorism is proactive, while situational couple violence is reactive.

51

Batterers

A term used to describe the perpetrators of intimate terrorism.

52

CTS

Conflict Tactics Scales, a commonly used set of questions designed to measure, over the span of the previous year, what happens when partners disagree.

53

True or false? The CTS gathers a wide range of information about conflict in relationships.

False.

54

Cycle of Violence

A pattern of physical abuse marked by a tension-building phase when the woman senses a man's growing edginess and frustration; an acute battering phase, when the a man inflicts rage and aggression on the woman; and the contrition phase, when the man apologizes and expresses remorse, leading eventually to renewed tension and frustration.

55

Among married couples, most report aggression in the year before marriage. True or false?

True.

56

True or false? Women have been implicated in initiating and perpetrating situational couple violence?

True.

57

True or false? Women more often injure men than the other way around in situational couple violence.

False, it is the other way around.

58

Unilateral Aggression

Violence inflicted solely by one partner in a relationship.

59

Bilateral Aggression

Violent behaviour perpetrated by both partners in a relationship.

60

True or false? More severe acts are more common than mild acts in IPV.

False, it is the other way around.

61

True or false? Women are more likely to be aggressive than men at both low and high levels of severity.

True.

62

Those in partnerships that are violent are more likely to stay violent. True or false?

True.

63

Does aggression affect relationship satisfaction?

Yes, negatively.

64

Do couples view relationship aggression as a significant problem?

Not really.

65

Sociocultural Perspective on Aggression

An approach to explaining violence in couples by recognizing how aggressive behaviour may be promoted or inhibited by various social and cultural institutions.

66

Interpersonal Perspective on Aggression

An approach to explaining violence n couples that emphasizes the private and passionate nature of intimate relationships, the high degree of partner interdependence, the presence of disagreements, and variations in the behavioural and cognitive capacities partner express in their interactions.

67

Intraindividual Perspective on Aggression

An approach to explaining violence in couples that focuses on the enduring qualities and personal histories of each partner.