Interconnected sets of beliefs, knowledge, and assumptions that relate to understanding a phenomenon.
Theories can include ___ systems.
A set of systematically related propositions that are empirically testable.
What is the key for scientific theories?
They are testable (falsifiable).
Theories determine what s ___.
Theories offer a ___ for studying relationships.
A good theory for intimate relationships…
- Encompasses the full range of possible predictors.
- Specify mechanisms of change.
- Account for variability between couples and within couples over time.
Theories can be compared to a ___.
What does theory do for us?
Accumulation, Precision, Guidance, Connectedness, Interpretation, Prediction.
In the context of theory, what does accumulation do?
Pulls together and organizes existing research findings.
In the context of theory what does precision do?
Requires us to carefully define terms and specify relationships.
In the context of theory, what does guidance do?
Tells us what is important to look at.
In the context of theory, what does connectedness do?
Explains how particular phenomena are related.
In the context of theory, what does interpretation do?
Allows us to understand new research findings.
In the context of theory, what does prediction do?
Gives us an idea of what will happen in the future.
What are the two types of variability in couples?
Between different couples, and within the same couples over time.
To understand couple relationships, we need to look at…
Evolution of human beings as a species.
___ ___ dominates the mate selection and sexuality literature.
Our minds, like physical characteristics, also evolved psychological mechanisms through ___ ___.
Evolutionary psychology is build on the theory of…
Natural selection by Charles Darwin.
Traits and characteristics are ___ in helping produce offspring are passed on.
Evolution is ___ and the development of society is ___.
In a hunting and gathering time, what were the roles?
Women gathered and men hunted.
According to the hunting and gathering times, women should prefer men with…and men should prefer women with…
Skills to help them hunt, skills to help them gather.
When pregnant or caring for children, women were more ___.
Successful behaviours for males include:
- Having a large number of sexual partners.
- Engaging in aggressive behaviour to help protect partners and offspring and to drive away competition.
Successful behaviours for females include:
- Attracting genetically fir partners.
- Providing care for offspring,
- Ensuring that sexual partners stay with them in order to help protect and defend themselves and their offspring.
Strong males who have the resources and intention to stay and help care for offspring.
Women who are likely to only invest in their children.
___ value virginity in their partners far more than ___.
Why do men value virginity in their partners more than women?
What is the Theory of Parental Investment?
Ultimately, the purpose of intimate relationships (from an evolutionary perspective) is to produce offspring.
There is a drastic difference in the minimum obligatory parental investment between…
Men and women.
Men literally only have to commit the…
Who has a drastically higher minimum obligatory parental investment?
Men are more likely to see as ___.
Females are more likely to serve as ___.
___ are more likely to be interested in sex, both with their relationship partner and with others.
___ are more likely to seek to ensure their partners do not stray.
These sex differences should show ___ variance across societies and contexts.
There are linkages between ___ and ___ processes.
Evolutionary psychology guides research in…
- Gender differences.
- Accounting for cross-cultural similarities.
- Dirty t-shirt research.
Women rate ___ infidelity more severely than ___ infidelity.
Men rate ___ infidelity more severely than ___ infidelity.
The tendency to rate emotional and sexual infidelity is guided by ___ ___ research.
Men are more attracted to characteristics such as ___ and ___.
Youth and vitality.
Women are attracted to ___.
Symmetry is proxy for ___ ___.
What did the Dirty T-Shirt Research find?
Women who were ovulating were more able to detect symmetry through scent, while men were not.
Men display ___ ejaculates for novel females.
Men who masturbated to the novel female had…
Larger ejaculates, more motile sperm, and also ejaculated more quickly.
Evolutionary psychology does not look at ___ between groups.
Evolutionary psychology is focused much more on ___ than ___.
Attraction and sexual behaviours. maintaining relationships.
Evolutionary psychology does not account for ___ ___ orientation.
Evolutionary explains ___ within same-sex couples.
Evolutionary explains processes within same-sex couples. How?
Male-male partners have the most sex, while female-female partners have the least sex.
Who came up with Attachment Theory?
John Bowlby in the 1960’s.
Internal model that children use togaed their interaction with caregivers and others.
What are the 3 attachment types?
Secure, avoidant, or ambivalent.
What is a secure attachment style?
Children that happily bonded with others and had a relaxed trust around people.
What leads to a secure attachment style?
Warm caregivers, needs were consistently met.
What is an anxious (ambivalent) attachment style?
Nervous and clingy, excessive neediness in relationships with others.
What leads to an anxious (ambivalent) attachment style?
Inconsistent warm and reliable care.
What is an avoidant attachment style?
Children who are often suspicious and angry at others, few trusting or close relationships.
What leads to an avoidant attachment style?
Caregiver was hostile and rare.
Suggests that these working models of attachment carry over into adulthood. People interact with intimate partners in accordance with their attachment style.
Attachment theory is conceptualized across two dimensions:
- People may see themselves as deserving or not deserving of love.
- People mat see their partners as able or unable to provide that love.
Attachment theory is no longer defined in categorical groups. Instead, how is it defined?
Along a continuum.
What are the four adult attachment styles?
Secure, preoccupied, dismissing, fearful.
Attachment style is related to people’s ___ of their partner’s behaviour.
Attachment style is related to people’s own ___.
Attachment style is related to two things. What are they?
- Perceptions of their partner’s behaviour.
2. People’s own behaviour.
Attachment styles are fairly ___, but are responsive to…
Stable, changing circumstances.
Attachment has difficulty ___ attachment in an intimater relationship.
Attachment Theory provides ___ throughout the life course.
Attachment theory is untested. True or false?
False, it has been tested in thousands of studies.
Attachment theories can be criticized, as explanations of current behaviour…
Lie in the past.
Attachment theory explains:
- Where standards and expectations for intimacy come from.
2. Why some people tend to have the same relationships over and over again.