Which theories focus on the present?
- Social exchange theory.
- Social learning theory.
- Ecological theories.
Social Exchange Theory
Partners evaluate their relationship by weighing the rewards and costs.
Rewards and costs can be both…
Material and immaterial.
Example of material rewards.
Example of immaterial rewards.
Partner’s social standing.
Example of material costs.
Example of immaterial costs.
Missing out on other things.
Choosing for forego opportunities with other potential partners as well.
Social exchange theory is a highly ___ process.
How to people weigh relationships?
Outcome = rewards - costs.
How do people weight satisfaction with their relationships?
Satisfaction = outcome - comparison level.
What you expect out of a relationship because of past experiences, etc.
If outcome is less than the comparison level, you are…
Comparison Level for Relationships
How do people determine their dependency on their relationship?
Dependency = outcome - comparison level of alternatives.
How is commitment measured?
Commitment = satisfaction + dependence.
Social Exchange Theory suggests that being satisfied in a relationship is not the same as being ___ to it.
What are some reasons partners may remain?
- Partners may intend to remain because they are happy.
- Partners may intend to remain because they are dependent on the relationship and cannot leave.
What is the investment model in social exchange theory?
Commitment = investments + satisfaction + dependence.
What theory accounts for why abusive relationships or empty marriages continue?
Social exchange theory.
How are dependence and satisfaction related to quality of the relationship?
High satisfaction and high dependence lead to a good relationship, while low satisfaction and low dependence leads to dissolving of a relationship. Only high-high leads to a good relationship.
Research has demonstrated that ___ and ___ are only moderately correlated.
What does low satisfaction and high dependence do to a relationship?
Leads to abusive and empty shell relationships.
What does high satisfaction and low dependence do to a relationship?
Pros of Social Exchange Theory
- Focuses on forces outside of couple relationships.
Cons of Social Exchange Theory
Does not describe how relationships change over time. Some relationships become more costly than rewarding.
Which theory focuses on dyads?
Social learning theory.
Social Learning Theory
Partners are likely to repeat behaviours that were rewarded. Operant conditioning.
Social learning theories are focused on ___ processes.
Social learning theory emphasizes that behaviours that partners exchange, and whether they are ___ by those behaviours.
Social learning theory suggests people get some kind of reward for ___ behaviour.
People get their partner to pay attention by engaging in negative behaviours like yelling and screaming.
People are able to stop an uncomfortable interaction, such as a fight, by engaging in behaviours like storming out of the room or crying.
What are some reasons that people may engage in negative behaviour in social learning theory?
- Coercion theory.
- Escape conditioning.
In social learning theory, partners make ___ about how their partner is likely to respond.
Those who are unhappy respond to negative behaviour with more negative behaviour.
Happy couples are respond to negative behaviours with ___ behaviours.
Negative reciprocity leads to a negative cycle of behaviour, and also adds to ___.
Contributions of social learning theory.
- First theory to make the dyad the focus.
- Prompted observational research methods.
- Many influential scholars employ it.
- Popular appeal.
Pros of social learning theory.
- Present focused and intuitive.
- Explains how couples interact, but there are other influences.
Cons of social learning theory.
- Accounts for change in only one direction. Happy couples increase happiness, and unhappy couples decrease happiness.
- Does not account for ups and downs in relationships. Rough patches are unexplained.
Most couples are ___ happy in their relationship after parenthood, but afterwards return to normal. Social learning theory fails to account for this.
Human ecological theory looks at individuals in the context of the ___.
Social Ecological Models
Take the broader context into account beyond the individual or the couple, exclusively.
Social Ecological Models acknowledges that intimate relationships exist in the ___ ___, and are influenced by ___ ___ happenings.
Real world, real world.
Social ecological models are not a single theory, but…
A collection of theories.
According to the social ecological theory, couples are situated in relation to the ___ around them.
Give examples of things that affect couple relationships in social ecological models.
History, neighbourhood, nationality, culture, living conditions, religion, friends, family, etc.
A = Stressor: May be positive or negative. B = Resources: May be financial, emotional, social C = Perception of the stressor. X = Crisis: How the stressor is experienced and responded to.
A couple feeling positive about being able to meet the challenge of moving, or a couple getting frustrated over their inability to find a nanny the like and can afford can be explained by the…
Double ABC-X Model
Acknowledges that stresses do not happen one at a time.
Relational Developmental Systems Model
Takes developmental view on individual functioning. We are being shaped by the environment around us.
Social ecological models focus on research concerning ___ life events.
What theory looks at intimate relationships among military couples, transition to parenthood, air traffic controllers, and the impact of socioeconomic status?
Social Ecological Models.
Pros of social ecological theories.
- Addresses context of larger environment.
- Provides understanding of how relationships change over time.
Cons of social ecological theories.
Specify there are links between environment and intimate relationships, but are less specific about the mechanisms.
Each theory on its own is ___.