Chapter 1: Why Study Intimate Relationships? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Why Study Intimate Relationships? Deck (77)
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1
Q

What are the 4 criteria that define an intimate relationship?

A
  1. The partners are interdependent.
  2. They consider each other special and unique.
  3. They influence each other across a variety of domains.
  4. They experience some degree of mutual sexual passion.
2
Q

What is interdependence?

A

Mutual influence that two people have over one another.

3
Q

Interdependence is present only in intimate relationships. True of false?

A

False, interdependence is characteristic of all social relationships.

4
Q

Does an internal representation of someone constitute a relationship?

A

No, otherwise I would be in a relationship with Mila Kunis.

5
Q

Interdependence that connects two people must have ___ in order for it to be a relationship.

A

Bidirectionality.

6
Q

What is bidirectionality?

A

Operates in both directions. Changes in Marina’s actions result in a change in Keith’s actions, and vice versa.

7
Q

Interdependence must grow ___ ___ in order to be involved in a relationship.

A

Over time.

8
Q

Relationship carries the implication that there is some degree of ___.

A

Continuity.

9
Q

Interdependence is a ___ condition for intimacy, not a ___ condition.

A

Necessary, sufficient.

10
Q

Intimate relationships requires that two interdependent people treat each other as ___ individuals.

A

Unique.

11
Q

Why are personal relationships important in intimate relationships?

A

It means that no person is interchangeable.

12
Q

Impersonal relationships tend to be formal and ___ oriented.

A

Task.

13
Q

Personal relationships engage us at a ___ emotional level.

A

Deeper.

14
Q

Impersonal relationships are determined by ___ ___, while personal relationships are determined by ___.

A

Social roles, uniqueness.

15
Q

A close relationship qualifies ___ and ___ relationships further.

A

Interdependent and personal.

16
Q

Closeness is reflected by the ___, ___, and ___ of the influences that partners have over one another.

A

Strength, frequency, and diversity.

17
Q

What is the difference between a close and an intimate relationship?

A

The presence of mutual sexual feelings.

18
Q

Does there have to be sex for a relationship to be intimate?

A

No, there just has to be the expectation that sexual passion will be consummated.

19
Q

Do one-night stands or one time sexual encounters fall under intimate relationships because there is sex involved?

A

No as it lacks the closeness.

20
Q

Define an intimate relationship.

A

A relationship characterized by strong, sustained, mutual influence over a broad range of interactions, with the possibility of sexual involvement.

21
Q

What are the 2 main reasons that intimate relationships are important?

A
  1. They are a basic feature of who we are as human beings.

2. Because of their consequences.

22
Q

What was found in the hand-holding study?

A

Holding an intimate partner’s hand made a person feel less threatened. Moreover, those that were happier in their relationship experienced a greater effect.

23
Q

What was found in the congestive heart failure study?

A

Those that were happier in their relationships tended to survive longer.

24
Q

What are the two groups of properties of relationships?

A

Intrinsic and extrinsic.

25
Q

What are intrinsic properties of why relationships are important?

A
  1. They determine the survival of our species.
  2. They are a universal human experience.
  3. They expand our range of emotional experience.
26
Q

What are extrinsic properties of why relationships are important?

A
  1. They affect our mental and physical health.
  2. They affect the well-being of our children.
  3. They form the fabric of our society.
27
Q

Natural Selection

A

When an organism with a particular gene is better able to survive and reproduce in a specific environment, thereby passing on their genes to future generations.

28
Q

Fitness

A

The qualities of an organism that improve its chances of producing surviving offspring.

29
Q

When we gaze at an intimate partner, there is an activation in areas that also activate when we are exposed to…

A

Rewards such as money or an intravenous shot of cocaine.

30
Q

Romantic love is no less ___ based than sexual desire.

A

Biologically.

31
Q

What is the hormone responsible for romantic love and sexual desire?

A

Oxytocin.

32
Q

Oxytocin is key in promoting ___, ___, and ___.

A

Calmness, sociability, and trust.

33
Q

Pairbond

A

A relationship between two individuals who have some degree of emotional and/or practical investment in one another, often with the purpose of reproducing.

34
Q

Cohabitation

A

Sharing a residence with an intimate partner without being married to that partner.

35
Q

Pairbonding is most often motivated by ___ and ___ ___.

A

Love, mutual attraction.

36
Q

What are the two most desirable features in a potential mate, and the most common reasons why people have sex?

A

Love and mutual attraction.

37
Q

Intimate relationships are best understood as the product of the universal capacity for intimacy and…

A

The prevailing cultural and historical settings in which the relationships occur.

38
Q

How do North American and Chinese students differ in the way they view love?

A

Love is viewed as a positive and equated with personal happiness in North America, while it is negatively tinged with unrequited feelings, infatuation, and sorrow in China.

39
Q

Why do differences in the way love is viewed exist?

A

The mindset of Western cultures is personal goals are prioritized. In Eastern cultures, there is a prevalence of ideas that outcomes are predestined, and there is little that can be done to change its course.

40
Q

In individualistic societies, how does a person find a mate?

A

Brings them home and introduces them to their family.

41
Q

In collectivist societies, how does a person find a mate?

A

The whole family is involved in the process, and try to enhance the family’s stability or social standing.

42
Q

Those who had a choice in selecting their own mate were ___ satisfied with their relationships than those who were in relationships where the mate was selected for them.

A

More.

43
Q

How are intimate relationships changing in Western cultures?

A

Marriage is shifting from being a institution in which social obligations have paramount importance, to a form of intimate companionship in which the emotional bonds are the most essential.

44
Q

What are some factors leading to the way intimate relationships are changing in Western cultures?

A
  1. Industrialization leads to decreased dependence of families on children.
  2. Geographic mobility reduces control families have on children.
  3. Increasing power of women to make personal decisions.
45
Q

Marriage now has the potential to make individuals happy, but comes at the cost of…

A

Marriages are now more fragile.

46
Q

___ has increased rapidly in the last 2 decades.

A

Cohabitation.

47
Q

With the increase in cohabitation, it has also become true that marriage is no longer viewed as a prerequisite to…

A

Becoming a parent.

48
Q

Is love a defining characteristic of intimate relationships?

A

No.

49
Q

Does love occur only in intimate relationships?

A

No, think of relationships with your parents.

50
Q

What are the two types of love?

A

Passionate love an companionate love.

51
Q

What are some characteristics of passionate love?

A
  • Infatuation.
  • Intense preoccupation with partner.
  • Feelings of exhilaration when reunited.
52
Q

What are some characteristics of companionate love?

A
  • Warm feelings of attachment.
  • Authentic and enduring bond.
  • A sense of mutual commitment.
  • Proud of mate’s accomplishments.
  • Satisfaction of sharing goals and perspectives.
53
Q

Nearly ___ of current marriages will end.

A

Half.

54
Q

What is subjective well being?

A

How happy we are in life.

55
Q

Which of the following type of people are happiest? Single, married, or divorced?

A

Married.

56
Q

What are the seven essential attributes of love?

A
  1. Desire.
  2. Idealization.
  3. Joy.
  4. Preoccupation.
  5. Proximity.
  6. Prioritizing.
  7. Caring.
57
Q

With regards to love, what is desire?

A

Wanting to be united with the partner, physically and emotionally.

58
Q

With regards to love, what is idealization?

A

Believing the partner is unique and special.

59
Q

With regards to love, what is joy?

A

Experiencing very strong, positive emotions.

60
Q

With regards to love, what is preoccupation?

A

Thinking a lot about the partner and having little control over when these thoughts occur.

61
Q

With regards to love, what is proximity?

A

Taking steps to maintain or restore physical closeness or emotional contact with the partner.

62
Q

With regards to love, what is prioritizing?

A

Giving the relationship more importance than other interests and responsibilities.

63
Q

With regards to love, what is caring?

A

Experiencing and expressing feelings of empathy and compassion for the partner.

64
Q

Relationship status

A

Independent of relationship quality, the type of relationship an individual is currently experiencing.

65
Q

Relationship quality

A

How good or bad an individual judges his or her relationship to be.

66
Q

Relationship transitions

A

Movement into and out of partnerships.

67
Q

Selection effect

A

An outcome when groups of people differ because of differences in the people who choose to enter those groups.

68
Q

Give an example of the selection effect.

A

Just because people in marriages are happier, does not mean that marriage has made them happier. Being happier from the start may have predisposed them towards marriage.

69
Q

Protection effect

A

Something about the experience itself produces protective benefits or advantages.

70
Q

What are some effects of conflict between parents on children?

A
  1. Disturbed sleep.
  2. Speeding up the onset of puberty.
  3. Compromising their physical health.
71
Q

How do intimate relationships between parents affect intimate relationships of children?

A

People whose parents had troubled marriages are more likely to have marital problems.

72
Q

Do genes have an effect on intimate relationship problems?

A

No.

73
Q

To what extent is the child’s fate determined by their parents’ intimate relationship?

A

Answer is inconclusive, but studies suggest that having parents who divorced increases one’s chances of divorcing by 10-20%.

74
Q

Social control theory

A

Social relationships organize and regulate how individuals behave, such that fewer, weaker, or poorer relationships increase the occurrence of deviant behaviour.

75
Q

How does cocaine use change with changed relationship statuses?

A

Decreases with committed relationships and increases with dissolving of committed relationships.

76
Q

When relationships dissolve, the costs to ___ are high.

A

Society.

77
Q

Oxytocin ___ activity in the amygdala and hypothalamus.

A

Decreases.