What are the 4 criteria that define an intimate relationship?
- The partners are interdependent.
- They consider each other special and unique.
- They influence each other across a variety of domains.
- They experience some degree of mutual sexual passion.
What is interdependence?
Mutual influence that two people have over one another.
Interdependence is present only in intimate relationships. True of false?
False, interdependence is characteristic of all social relationships.
Does an internal representation of someone constitute a relationship?
No, otherwise I would be in a relationship with Mila Kunis.
Interdependence that connects two people must have ___ in order for it to be a relationship.
What is bidirectionality?
Operates in both directions. Changes in Marina’s actions result in a change in Keith’s actions, and vice versa.
Interdependence must grow ___ ___ in order to be involved in a relationship.
Relationship carries the implication that there is some degree of ___.
Interdependence is a ___ condition for intimacy, not a ___ condition.
Intimate relationships requires that two interdependent people treat each other as ___ individuals.
Why are personal relationships important in intimate relationships?
It means that no person is interchangeable.
Impersonal relationships tend to be formal and ___ oriented.
Personal relationships engage us at a ___ emotional level.
Impersonal relationships are determined by ___ ___, while personal relationships are determined by ___.
Social roles, uniqueness.
A close relationship qualifies ___ and ___ relationships further.
Interdependent and personal.
Closeness is reflected by the ___, ___, and ___ of the influences that partners have over one another.
Strength, frequency, and diversity.
What is the difference between a close and an intimate relationship?
The presence of mutual sexual feelings.
Does there have to be sex for a relationship to be intimate?
No, there just has to be the expectation that sexual passion will be consummated.
Do one-night stands or one time sexual encounters fall under intimate relationships because there is sex involved?
No as it lacks the closeness.
Define an intimate relationship.
A relationship characterized by strong, sustained, mutual influence over a broad range of interactions, with the possibility of sexual involvement.
What are the 2 main reasons that intimate relationships are important?
- They are a basic feature of who we are as human beings.
2. Because of their consequences.
What was found in the hand-holding study?
Holding an intimate partner’s hand made a person feel less threatened. Moreover, those that were happier in their relationship experienced a greater effect.
What was found in the congestive heart failure study?
Those that were happier in their relationships tended to survive longer.
What are the two groups of properties of relationships?
Intrinsic and extrinsic.
What are intrinsic properties of why relationships are important?
- They determine the survival of our species.
- They are a universal human experience.
- They expand our range of emotional experience.
What are extrinsic properties of why relationships are important?
- They affect our mental and physical health.
- They affect the well-being of our children.
- They form the fabric of our society.
When an organism with a particular gene is better able to survive and reproduce in a specific environment, thereby passing on their genes to future generations.
The qualities of an organism that improve its chances of producing surviving offspring.
When we gaze at an intimate partner, there is an activation in areas that also activate when we are exposed to…
Rewards such as money or an intravenous shot of cocaine.
Romantic love is no less ___ based than sexual desire.
What is the hormone responsible for romantic love and sexual desire?
Oxytocin is key in promoting ___, ___, and ___.
Calmness, sociability, and trust.
A relationship between two individuals who have some degree of emotional and/or practical investment in one another, often with the purpose of reproducing.
Sharing a residence with an intimate partner without being married to that partner.
Pairbonding is most often motivated by ___ and ___ ___.
Love, mutual attraction.
What are the two most desirable features in a potential mate, and the most common reasons why people have sex?
Love and mutual attraction.
Intimate relationships are best understood as the product of the universal capacity for intimacy and…
The prevailing cultural and historical settings in which the relationships occur.
How do North American and Chinese students differ in the way they view love?
Love is viewed as a positive and equated with personal happiness in North America, while it is negatively tinged with unrequited feelings, infatuation, and sorrow in China.
Why do differences in the way love is viewed exist?
The mindset of Western cultures is personal goals are prioritized. In Eastern cultures, there is a prevalence of ideas that outcomes are predestined, and there is little that can be done to change its course.
In individualistic societies, how does a person find a mate?
Brings them home and introduces them to their family.
In collectivist societies, how does a person find a mate?
The whole family is involved in the process, and try to enhance the family’s stability or social standing.
Those who had a choice in selecting their own mate were ___ satisfied with their relationships than those who were in relationships where the mate was selected for them.
How are intimate relationships changing in Western cultures?
Marriage is shifting from being a institution in which social obligations have paramount importance, to a form of intimate companionship in which the emotional bonds are the most essential.
What are some factors leading to the way intimate relationships are changing in Western cultures?
- Industrialization leads to decreased dependence of families on children.
- Geographic mobility reduces control families have on children.
- Increasing power of women to make personal decisions.
Marriage now has the potential to make individuals happy, but comes at the cost of…
Marriages are now more fragile.
___ has increased rapidly in the last 2 decades.
With the increase in cohabitation, it has also become true that marriage is no longer viewed as a prerequisite to…
Becoming a parent.
Is love a defining characteristic of intimate relationships?
Does love occur only in intimate relationships?
No, think of relationships with your parents.
What are the two types of love?
Passionate love an companionate love.
What are some characteristics of passionate love?
- Intense preoccupation with partner.
- Feelings of exhilaration when reunited.
What are some characteristics of companionate love?
- Warm feelings of attachment.
- Authentic and enduring bond.
- A sense of mutual commitment.
- Proud of mate’s accomplishments.
- Satisfaction of sharing goals and perspectives.
Nearly ___ of current marriages will end.
What is subjective well being?
How happy we are in life.
Which of the following type of people are happiest? Single, married, or divorced?
What are the seven essential attributes of love?
With regards to love, what is desire?
Wanting to be united with the partner, physically and emotionally.
With regards to love, what is idealization?
Believing the partner is unique and special.
With regards to love, what is joy?
Experiencing very strong, positive emotions.
With regards to love, what is preoccupation?
Thinking a lot about the partner and having little control over when these thoughts occur.
With regards to love, what is proximity?
Taking steps to maintain or restore physical closeness or emotional contact with the partner.
With regards to love, what is prioritizing?
Giving the relationship more importance than other interests and responsibilities.
With regards to love, what is caring?
Experiencing and expressing feelings of empathy and compassion for the partner.
Independent of relationship quality, the type of relationship an individual is currently experiencing.
How good or bad an individual judges his or her relationship to be.
Movement into and out of partnerships.
An outcome when groups of people differ because of differences in the people who choose to enter those groups.
Give an example of the selection effect.
Just because people in marriages are happier, does not mean that marriage has made them happier. Being happier from the start may have predisposed them towards marriage.
Something about the experience itself produces protective benefits or advantages.
What are some effects of conflict between parents on children?
- Disturbed sleep.
- Speeding up the onset of puberty.
- Compromising their physical health.
How do intimate relationships between parents affect intimate relationships of children?
People whose parents had troubled marriages are more likely to have marital problems.
Do genes have an effect on intimate relationship problems?
To what extent is the child’s fate determined by their parents’ intimate relationship?
Answer is inconclusive, but studies suggest that having parents who divorced increases one’s chances of divorcing by 10-20%.
Social control theory
Social relationships organize and regulate how individuals behave, such that fewer, weaker, or poorer relationships increase the occurrence of deviant behaviour.
How does cocaine use change with changed relationship statuses?
Decreases with committed relationships and increases with dissolving of committed relationships.
When relationships dissolve, the costs to ___ are high.
Oxytocin ___ activity in the amygdala and hypothalamus.