Do behaviours have objective meaning?
Our conclusions about the world are based on ___ than others’ behaviour.
We draw on ___ to interpret others’ behaviour.
Expectations, personalities, experiences, beliefs.
Information processing involves how we take our…
Interpretations of specific experiences to global meaning.
Your partner coming home and being grouchy with you is an example of…
A concrete behaviour.
Interpreting her as having a bad day, or not caring about you are examples of…
I really love this hard-working woman, or I am sick of this empty relationship are examples of…
Two people can come to very ___ conclusions after witnessing the same event.
Meaning matters because of…
- Which behaviours we attend to.
- How we interpret those behaviours.
- How we react to those behaviours.
How we organize information about the world and come to conclusions.
Information processes results in a ___.
How is the hierarchy that results from information processing organized?
Specific behaviours result in general conclusions or perceptions.
A punctual partner can be perceived as…
Reliable, or obsessive-compulsive.
Qualities that initially appear attractive become the same qualities that end a relationship.
Give an example of fatal attraction.
Cool, quiet, and calm becomes cold, indifferent, and apathetic.
When more specific behaviours support the same general conclusion…
The conclusion will be more resilient to new information.
People would prefer to reach ___ ___ about their partner.
Certain conclusion. For example, we would rather interpret a persons action as reliable, not obsessive compulsive.
Are there limits to our motivated reasoning?
Yes. Reliability needs to be demonstrated.
A preference for information that supports and strengthens positive beliefs about partner/relationship.
People are ___ to view their partners positively.
People frequently see their partners more ___ than their partners see themselves.
A preference for information that indicates important qualities about a partner or relationship.
Trying to figure out if someone likes you is affected by ___ ___.
A preference for information that supports what we already know.
When viewing global areas of our relationship, we tend to use ___ bias.
When viewing specific areas of our relationship, we tend to use ___ bias.
Accuracy (diagnosticity and confirmation).
Do we use each bias equally?
No, which bias predominates depends on the area of perception.
People want feel that they have reached conclusions that are correct.
People’s overall feelings have an impact on their perceptions of more specific aspects of their relationship.
People are motivated to feel that they themselves are good people.
People tend to take more credit for success, and they tend to blame external factors for failure. What bias is this?
People may simply ignore this negative information.
Those happier in their relationships spent ___ time viewing attractive members of the opposite sex.
Empathic Accuracy Model
People’s motivation to understand what their partner is saying varies wit whether their partner is saying something negative or positive.
Under the empathic accuracy model, a positive statement leads to…
High motivation to understand.
Under the empathic accuracy model, a negative statement leads to…
Low motivation to understand.
People tend to remember their relationships as improving, especially her the recent past.
Is memory concrete?
Memory is like…
A film reel that is constantly being edited and re-edited over time.
People may alter their relationship standards based on how their partner behaves.
Explanations for partners behaviours.
Example of internal stable attribution.
“My partner was late because he is a thoughtless jerk.”
Example of internal temporary attribution.
“My partner was late because he forgot to set his alarm.”
Example of external stable attribution.
“My partner was late because his crappy car broke down again.”
Example of external temporary attribution.
“My partner was late because he got stuck in traffic.”
When presented with an attractive member of the opposite sex, those in happy relationships rate the attractiveness of this person lower than unhappy partners or singles.
People may link negative information with positive information about their partner or they may compartmentalize the negative information.
Two parts of cognitive restructuring:
Integration (in cognitive restructuring).
Viewing positives and negatives together.
What part of cognitive restructuring is related to more satisfaction in the short term?
Compartmentalization (in cognitive restructuring).
Separating positives and negatives.
How do relationships change? What are the limits?
- Limits of ability.
2. Limits of motivation.
What are the different methods for coping with negative information?
- Selective attention.
- Empathic accuracy model.
- Memory bias.
- Flexible standards.
- Derogating alternatives.
- Cognitive restructuring.
Those who are dependent on the relationship tend to…
Think more positively about their relationship.