Chapter 2: Tools of Relationship Science Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Tools of Relationship Science Deck (77):
1

Relationship Science

Application of the tools of the scientific method to answer questions about interpersonal relationships.

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Scientific Method

A rigorous and self-correcting set of procedures used for making predictions, gathering data, and comparing the validity of competing claims about the world.

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What are the 3 questions that motivate research on intimate relationships?

1. Description.
2. Prediction.
3. Explanation.

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Theory

A general explanation of a phenomenon.

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Variables

The elements of a theory.

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Falsifiable

It suggests testable predictions that can be confirmed or disconfirmed through systematic observation.

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What is the problems with hollywood romance theories?

They do not make any predictions or lead to any research; the theory is not falsifiable.

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Hypotheses

Specific predictions suggested by a theory.

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Replication

Repetition of research that examines the same question multiple times.

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What is the difference between theories in social sciences and physical sciences?

Social scientists tend to theorize about variables that are intangible.

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Psychological Constructs

An abstract concept, such a love, support, or trust, that social scientists strive to define, measure, and study.

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Operationalization

The translation of an abstract construct into concrete terms in order to test predictions about that construct.

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Can psychological constructs be measured?

No, only the operationalization of these constructs can be measured.

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Construct Validity

The extent to which an operationalization adequately represents a particular psychological construct.

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Self Reports

Their own descriptions and evaluations of their experiences.

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Sociosexuality

The propensity to contemplate sex outside the context of a committed intimate relationship.

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Fixed-Response Scales

A survey instrument that presents respondents with a predetermined set of questions, each with a predetermined set of answers from which to choose.

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Open-Ended Question

A measurement approach in which respondents are asked questions but are not provided a specific set of response options, thereby allowing them to answer the questions in their own words.

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Qualitative Research

An approach to data collection that relies primarily on open-ended questions and other loosely structured information, often contrasted with research that emphasizes explicit quantification of concepts.

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Social Desirability Effects

A tendency for research participants to provide answers that they think will make them look good to the researchers.

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Observational Measure

An approach to data collection permitting direct access to relationship events, typically in the form of conversations between partners assessed via video or audio records.

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Omnibus Measure

A measure of a psychological construct that includes questions capturing a wide range of phenomena, usually applied to self-report instruments and characteristic of some measures of relationship satisfaction.

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Global Measure

An instrument for assessing relationship satisfaction that asks partners only about their evaluation of the relationship as a whole.

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Sentiment Override

When feelings about the relationship as a whole override the partner's perceptions about a specific aspect of a relationship.

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Physiological Responses

The body's involuntary reactions to experiences.

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What are the 3 challenges when designing observational measures?

1. Who does the observing.
2. What to observe.
3. Where to do the observing.

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Home-Based Observation

A method of conducting research on behaviour that records observations within a couple's home, either by sending observers with recording equipment to the game or by sending the equipment to couples so they can record themselves.

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Laboratory-Based Observation

In observational research, observing participants in a controlled environment, such as a research room, as they engage in a behaviour of interest; eliminates influence of outside factors that may alter behaviour in other settings, and removes the behaviour from the environment where it usually occurs.

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Reliability

The extent to which different observers agree that a specific behaviour has or has not occurred.

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Which is cheaper and easier? Self report of observational measures?

Self-report.

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What are some reasons to choose observational measures?

- High construct validity.
- Avoid problems with self-report.

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Reactivity

Changing behaviour because you know you are being watched.

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Multiple-Method Approach

Operationalizing the constructs of interest in different ways, so the limitations of each measurement strategy may eventually cancel each other out and the effects the researcher focused on can emerge clearly.

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___ ___ ___ are appropriate for measuring perceptions.

Self-Report Measures.

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___ ___ are appropriate for measuring behaviour.

Observational Measures.

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Correlational Research

A research design that examines the naturally occurring associations among variables; aimed primarily at answering descriptive questions.

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Positive Correlation

When one variable is high, levels of the other variable are high as well. When the variable is low, the other variable is low as well.

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Negative Correlation

High levels of one variable is associated with low levels of the other variable. Low levels for one variable is associated with high levels of the other variable.

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Causation

The idea that one event or circumstance is the direct result as another,

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What are 3 possible explanations to a correlation?

1. X may cause Y.
2. Y may cause X.
3. X and Y may be the result of some other cause.

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Cross-Sectional Data

Data descries a cross-section of a single instant.

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Longitudinal research addresses which questions?

Description and prediction.

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What is the central challenge to longitudinal research?

Deciding on the appropriate interval between each measurement.

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Daily Diary Approach

Research that asks people to fill out a questionnaire every day at the same time.

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Experience Sampling Approach

Sampling from the totality of a person's experiences.

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Attrition Bias

In longitudinal research, a bias caused by participants dropping out, leading a final sample that differs from the initial sample in important ways.

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Experimental Research

A research design in which researchers manipulate one element of a phenomenon to determine its effects on the rest of the phenomenon.

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What are the 4 elements of a true experiment?

1. Dependent variable.
2. Independent variable.
3. Control.
4. Random assignment.

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Dependent Variable

The effect or outcome the researchers want to understand.

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Independent Variable

Possible cause of the dependent variable.

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Control

Holding constant all aspects of the experimental situation they are not manipulating.

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Random Assignment

Every research participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any condition of an experiment.

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When should experimental research be used?

When examining questions of explanation and causation.

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External Validity

Whether the results of an experiment apply in other situations.

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Archival Research

When the researcher examines existing data that has already been gathered, usually for an unrelated purpose, by someone else.

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Content Analysis

The process of coding open-ended materials in a way that allows material from different sources to be quantified and compared.

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What is the advantage of correlational (cross-sectional) research?

Can describe naturally occurring associations among variables.

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What are the disadvantages of correlational (cross-sectional) research?

Cannot support causal statements.

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What are the advantages of longitudinal research?

Can describe change over time and predict outcomes.

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What are the disadvantages of longitudinal research?

Cannot support causal statements; attrition bias.

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What are the advantages of experimental research?

Can support causal statements.

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What are the disadvantages of experimental research?

Results may not generalize outside the experimental situation.

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What are the advantages of archival research?

Cost-effective and can provide historical perspective.

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What are the disadvantages of archival research?

Conclusions are limited by the quality of the original data.

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Sample

Subset of the normal population that provide data.

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Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

Represents the possible associations of two variables in a couple.

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Representative Samples

Samples consisting of people who are demonstrably similar to the population to which the researchers would like to generalize.

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Convenience Samples

Samples recruited simply because they are easy.

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Null Hypothesis

The hypothesis that there is no effect.

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Statistical Analysis

Determines the probability of obtaining a particular result given a particular set of conditions.

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What is the probability that is sufficient to reject a null hypothesis?

0.05.

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Statistically Significant Events

Effects large enough to occur less than 5% of the time.

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Meta-analysis

Set of statistical techniques specifically designed to combine results across studies and reveal the overall effects observed by a body of scientific research.

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What are the 2 principles of ethical conduct in research?

1. Respect people that provide data.
2. Protect participants from potential harm.

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Confidentiality

Information is not shared or discussed with anyone not directly associated with the research.

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Anonymity

Assigning identification numbers rather than names.

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Informed Consent

Written agreement signed by participants indicating they understand the research procedures and know what to expect.