Flashcards in Chapter 9: Beliefs and Values Deck (45):
An idea or theory about what the world is like.
An idea about what a person desires, aspires to, or believes should be true.
Can beliefs and values overlap?
Yes. For example, the belief that members of a particular ethnic or racial group make better romantic partners is not exactly value-free.
What are the 3 dimensions along which researchers distinguish concerning how knowledge of intimate relationships vary for different people?
1. Beliefs vs. values.
2. Knowledge targeting ourself, our partner, and our relationship.
3. General vs. specific knowledge.
What are the three possible targets of understanding intimate relationships?
2. Our partner.
3. Our relationship with our partner.
Lay Relationship Theories
The accumulated knowledge that people who are not researchers have about intimate relationships.
General Lay Theories
The ideas and beliefs of people who are not researchers about how relationships function.
Specific Lay Theories
Beliefs and values people hold about specific ongoing or prior relationships.
According to Sprecher and Metts, what are the four separate beliefs that romantic love is composed of?
1. Loving someone means loving everything about them.
2. There exists only 1 suitable person for every person.
3. Belief that love can overcome all challenges.
4. It is possible to fall in love at first sight.
Those who believe Sprecher and Metts' four beliefs of romantic love require...
An exciting and erotic attraction.
What are the two dimensions along which beliefs about relationships can vary?
1. Romance and passion are most important/practical concerns are most important.
2. Relationships grow/relationships are fixed.
What are the four broad beliefs about relationships?
1. Long-term bliss.
2. Storybook fantasy.
4. Utilitarian involvement.
Long Term Bliss
The belief that romance and passion are most important, and that relationships grow. Passional can be nurtured and developed over time.
The belief that romance and passion are most important, and that relationships are fixed. Passion is the result of fate or chemistry.
The belief that practical concerns are most important, and that relationships grow. Couples grow closed and more interdependent over time.
The belief that practical concerns are most important, and that relationships are fixed. Relationships are like business arrangements whose terms are not negotiable.
Taylor Swift's singing of "we are never ever ever getting back together" is an example of a ___ ___ theory.
A prediction about what is likely to happen in the future, often based on genera beliefs about how relationships function.
Locus of Control
A person's expectation about visor her ability to bring about desired changes in some aspect of life.
Internal Locus of Control
The belief that one can bring about desired outcomes through one's own actions.
External Locus of Control
The belief that one's success or failure is primarily the result of outside forces.
Locus of control is a ___ belief.
A positive or negative evaluation of someone or something.
Sex Role Traditionalism
The tendency to value a clear and conventional separation of the roles and responsibilities for men and women.
A yardstick for evaluating something; the minimum set of qualities and attributes partners require to be satisfied with their relationship.
An ___ is an expression of an evaluation, while a ___ is like a yardstick for making that evaluation.
The highest outcomes to which a person ultimately aspires.
___ is what people settle for, while ___ is what a person wishes for.
Ideal Standards Model
The theory that the amount of discrepancy between values for relationships in general and perceptions of the current relationship in particular determines whether a person will be satisfied with the relationship. The greater the discrepancy between general ideals and specific perceptions, the lower the evaluation of that relationship.
The tendency to interpret new and/or ambiguous information and experiences in a manner consistent with existing ideas, beliefs, and expectations, thereby reinforcing them.
The process through which beliefs and expectations lead to behaviour that elicits responses that confirm the initial beliefs and expectations.
Behaviour that leads to an expected experience or outcome.
Is it better to expect the best or brace for the worst in relationships?
Inconclusive. It depends.
Why does it work when you expect the best in a relationship?
Motivate people to capitalize on relationship strengths and minimize weaknesses. Those that believed they were highly regarded made resolving conflicts easier, whereas those who believed they were not highly regarded intensified conflicts.
What is wrong with thinking positively about a relationship?
It leads to expectations that your partner eventually cannot reach, leading to disappointment or even frustration and anger.
Where should you set your expectations about a relationship?
Where it is realistic. This is not an objective scale, but a subjective one.
Drive people towards mastery of a topic.
Drive people to seek favourable evaluations and avoid negative ones.
Those with a positive view of relationships are compared to those who have ___ goals.
Those with a negative view of relationships are compared to those who have ___ goals.
True or false? The effects of similarity between partners' beliefs and values are larger than the effects of beliefs and values within partners.
False. The effects between are relatively small compared to beliefs within.
Stereotype Accuracy Effect
The fact that two partners may share beliefs and values and still be no more similar to each other than to any other member of their population, simply because most people share the same beliefs and values.
Which poses a problem in relationships? Both egalitarian, both traditional, traditional wife and egalitarian husband, traditional husband and egalitarian wife.
Traditional husband and egalitarian wife.
The shared attitudes, beliefs, norms, and values of people who speak the same language and share a geographic area, during a specific period of time.