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Flashcards in Personal Family History Deck (36)
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1
Q

What early experiences affect intimate relationships?

A
  • Relationship parents have with each other.

- Relationship with parents.

2
Q

Intergenerational (Transmission) Effects

A

The relationships of people’s parents are related to their own relationships.

3
Q

Give examples of intergenerational effects.

A
  • Parental divorce.
  • Parental marital satisfaction.
  • Parental relationship behaviour.
4
Q

Studies that observed parents interacting found that…

A

Children picked up on those interactions.

5
Q

___ and ___ between parents are particularly likely to be passed on to children’s romantic relationships.

A

Hostility, aggression.

6
Q

What types of negative observed behaviours are likely to be passed down to children from parents?

A

Accusing, blaming, insulting, putting down, threatening, name-calling, devaluing each other, being critical, sarcastic, stc.. Hitting, punching, pinching, grabbing.

7
Q

___ ___ and ___ between parents also tend to get passed down.

A

Positive engagement, warmth.

8
Q

What types of positive observed behaviours are likely to be passed down from children from parents?

A

Helpfulness, sensitivity, express self with confidence in non-threatening manner, demonstrating care, responsive listening.

9
Q

Why do we pay more attention to negative engagement?

A

Evolutionary adaptation.

10
Q

Do we pay more attention to positive or negative engagement?

A

Negative.

11
Q

Children of divorce tend to experience worse outcome on these domains:

A
  1. Academic achievement.
  2. Mental health.
  3. Social risks.
12
Q

Children of divorce tend to have decreased academic achievement how?

A

Repeating a grade, skipping school, being suspended or expelled, meeting with a principal, lower grades.

13
Q

Children of divorce tend to have decreased mental health how?

A

Lower self-esteem and higher depression, less life satisfaction, and greater substance use.

14
Q

Children of divorce tend to have increased social risks how?

A

Early sexual intercourse (prior to age 16), greater number of sexual partners, early cohabitation with a partner (as a teenager).

15
Q

Why is parental divorce associated with logistical challenges in children’ lives?

A
  • Financial hardship.
  • Coordination of family functions/holidays.
  • Less time with one or both parents.
16
Q

If a parental relationship is filled with conflict, divorce is related to…

A

Better outcomes for children.

17
Q

Why do children struggle with low-conflict parental divorces?

A

Because they do not know why. They cannot ration why it happened.

18
Q

Is it possible to mitigate the negative impact of divorce?

A

Known as the “Good Divorce,” Ahrons would argue yes.

19
Q

3 classification by Amato et al. of divorced parents:

A
  1. Cooperative parenting.
  2. Parallel parenting.
  3. Single parenting.
20
Q

Cooperative Parenting

A

Good relationship between exes and frequent contact with child.

21
Q

Parallel Parenting

A

No relationship between exes and little communication or collaboration.

22
Q

Single Parenting

A

High conflict between exes with no collaboration or communication.

23
Q

Children in cooperative parenting cluster had…

A

Fewer behaviour problems and higher quality relationships with fathers.

24
Q

Cooperative parenting does not differ from other groups in terms of…

A

Self-esteem, grades, enjoying school, substance use, life satisfaction, early sexual activity, number of sexual partners, closeness to mothers, early marriage or cohabitation.

25
Q

What helps in a divorce?

A
  • Children having frequent contact with parents.
  • Parents not putting kids in middle.
  • Parents slow down divorce process.
  • Providing competent services for meeting the potential challenges (childcare).
26
Q

Do most couples, even in good marriages, consider divorce?

A

Yes.

27
Q

Within divorcing couples, around __% believe their marriage could still be saved.

A

25.

28
Q

__% of divorcing couples would be interested in trying reconciliation services.

A

30.

29
Q

In addition to parents’ marital processes, the relationships that parents have with their children are also related to…

A

Children’s’ relationship outcomes.

30
Q

Attachment style stems from…

A

Children’s’ relationship with their parents.

31
Q

Those with better quality relationships with their parents as teenagers tended to have higher levels of ___ ___ during ages 18-25, and experienced more satisfying intimate unions as young adults.

A

Self-esteem.

32
Q

Family of origin influences cluster around which domains?

A
  • Behaviour.
  • Beliefs.
  • Personal characteristics.
33
Q

How is behaviour altered by intergenerational transmission?

A

Interaction with family influences how children alter interact with their romantic partners.

34
Q

How is beliefs altered by intergenerational transmission?

A

Experiencing parental separation of low-quality parental marriage is related to a more pessimistic view of relationships.

35
Q

How are personal characteristics altered by intergenerational transmission?

A

Self-esteem and attachment style.

36
Q

Does family determine outcomes in romantic relationships?

A

No, similar to gender and personality, it merely plays a role.