What early experiences affect intimate relationships?
- Relationship parents have with each other.
- Relationship with parents.
Intergenerational (Transmission) Effects
The relationships of people’s parents are related to their own relationships.
Give examples of intergenerational effects.
- Parental divorce.
- Parental marital satisfaction.
- Parental relationship behaviour.
Studies that observed parents interacting found that…
Children picked up on those interactions.
___ and ___ between parents are particularly likely to be passed on to children’s romantic relationships.
What types of negative observed behaviours are likely to be passed down to children from parents?
Accusing, blaming, insulting, putting down, threatening, name-calling, devaluing each other, being critical, sarcastic, stc.. Hitting, punching, pinching, grabbing.
___ ___ and ___ between parents also tend to get passed down.
Positive engagement, warmth.
What types of positive observed behaviours are likely to be passed down from children from parents?
Helpfulness, sensitivity, express self with confidence in non-threatening manner, demonstrating care, responsive listening.
Why do we pay more attention to negative engagement?
Do we pay more attention to positive or negative engagement?
Children of divorce tend to experience worse outcome on these domains:
- Academic achievement.
- Mental health.
- Social risks.
Children of divorce tend to have decreased academic achievement how?
Repeating a grade, skipping school, being suspended or expelled, meeting with a principal, lower grades.
Children of divorce tend to have decreased mental health how?
Lower self-esteem and higher depression, less life satisfaction, and greater substance use.
Children of divorce tend to have increased social risks how?
Early sexual intercourse (prior to age 16), greater number of sexual partners, early cohabitation with a partner (as a teenager).
Why is parental divorce associated with logistical challenges in children’ lives?
- Financial hardship.
- Coordination of family functions/holidays.
- Less time with one or both parents.
If a parental relationship is filled with conflict, divorce is related to…
Better outcomes for children.
Why do children struggle with low-conflict parental divorces?
Because they do not know why. They cannot ration why it happened.
Is it possible to mitigate the negative impact of divorce?
Known as the “Good Divorce,” Ahrons would argue yes.
3 classification by Amato et al. of divorced parents:
- Cooperative parenting.
- Parallel parenting.
- Single parenting.
Good relationship between exes and frequent contact with child.
No relationship between exes and little communication or collaboration.
High conflict between exes with no collaboration or communication.
Children in cooperative parenting cluster had…
Fewer behaviour problems and higher quality relationships with fathers.
Cooperative parenting does not differ from other groups in terms of…
Self-esteem, grades, enjoying school, substance use, life satisfaction, early sexual activity, number of sexual partners, closeness to mothers, early marriage or cohabitation.
What helps in a divorce?
- Children having frequent contact with parents.
- Parents not putting kids in middle.
- Parents slow down divorce process.
- Providing competent services for meeting the potential challenges (childcare).
Do most couples, even in good marriages, consider divorce?
Within divorcing couples, around __% believe their marriage could still be saved.
__% of divorcing couples would be interested in trying reconciliation services.
In addition to parents’ marital processes, the relationships that parents have with their children are also related to…
Children’s’ relationship outcomes.
Attachment style stems from…
Children’s’ relationship with their parents.
Those with better quality relationships with their parents as teenagers tended to have higher levels of ___ ___ during ages 18-25, and experienced more satisfying intimate unions as young adults.
Family of origin influences cluster around which domains?
- Personal characteristics.
How is behaviour altered by intergenerational transmission?
Interaction with family influences how children alter interact with their romantic partners.
How is beliefs altered by intergenerational transmission?
Experiencing parental separation of low-quality parental marriage is related to a more pessimistic view of relationships.
How are personal characteristics altered by intergenerational transmission?
Self-esteem and attachment style.
Does family determine outcomes in romantic relationships?
No, similar to gender and personality, it merely plays a role.