Chapter 12: Improving Relationships Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: Improving Relationships Deck (51):
1

Psychodynamic Models

An approach to couples therapy that emphasizes the unconscious forces that govern how two partners perceive one another and the emotional reactions that follow from these perceptions.

2

Object Relations Couples Therapy

An approach to therapeutic intervention with couples that assumes intimate communication is motivated by unconscious feelings and beliefs and aims to neutralize them so partners can relate to each other authentically.

3

Internal representations in object relations therapy is known as ___ ___ in attachment theory.

Working models.

4

Projection

In psychodynamic models of couples therapy, an unconscious tendency for a person to deny his or her own flaws and negative emotions, locating them instead in the external world; a person is said to project negative experiences onto a partner.

5

Projective Identification

A concept from object relations couples therapy capturing the way one person identifies with and responds to how the partner describes or experiences him or her.

6

Containment

According to psychodynamic models of couples therapy, the process by which one partner adopts and identifies with the partner's view of himself or herself.

7

Introjective Identification

In psychodynamic models of couples therapy, the means by which one partner takes in a modified version of himself or herself, as expressed by the partner, and assimilate this into his or her identity.

8

Systems Model

An approach to couples therapy that emphasizes the repetitive patterns of interaction that create tension between partners, and the unspoken rules and beliefs that govern those interactions.

9

Relabel

A technique in which a couples therapist offers a more benign interpretation for a specific behaviour or event so partners can understand it in a more positive and productive light. Also called reframe.

10

Reframe

A technique in which a couples therapist offers a more benign interpretation for a specific behaviour or event so partners can understand it in a more positive and productive light. Also called relabel.

11

Behavioural Models

An approach to couples therapy that emphasizes behaviours exchanged between partners and the perception and interpretations that give rise to these behaviours.

12

Behavioural Couples Therapy

An intervention for unhappy couples in which the therapist defines the problem in terms of specific problem behaviours, and clarifies the rewards and punishments that maintain these behaviours, thus perpetuating the couple's difficulties.

13

What do therapists strive to do in behavioural couples therapy? (2 things).

1. Define the problem in the present in terms of the specific behaviours the partners find troubling or aversive.
2. Understand the rewards and punishments that maintain these behaviours.

14

Negative Reinforcement

Increasing the likelihood of some behaviour recurring in the future by responding to it with the removal of some aversive stimulus.

15

Positive Reinforcement

Increasing the likelihood of some behaviour recurring in the future by responding to it with a pleasurable or rewarding stimulus.

16

Behaviour Exchange

The initial stage of traditional behavioural couples therapy, giving he therapist diagnostic information about the extent to which partners can generate new, positive experiences in their relationship; conveys that improving their relationship can be enjoyable rather than painful.

17

Communication Training

A technique in behavioural couples therapy in which partners receive concrete advice on how to listen and talk to each other productively.

18

Problem-Solving Training

A component of traditional behavioural couples therapy in which couples learn to apply new communication skills to problems in their relationship, following specified guidelines.

19

Cognitive-Behavioural Couples Therapy

An approach focusing on how couples interact and respond to each other and how they interpret each other's behaviour. The premise of this approach is that dysfunctional patterns of behaviour and cognition can be identified and corrected with training.

20

Selective Attention

Tendency for partners to focus on certain behaviours, but overlook others.

21

Attributions

Interpretations for behaviours/events.

22

Expectations

Predictions about what the partner will do in the future.

23

Assumptions

Beliefs about how relationships and people actually operate.

24

Standards

The way relationships and partners should be.

25

Integrative Behavioural Couples Therapy

An approach that combines behavioural interventions with techniques help couples tolerate and even accept displeasing aspects of the partner and the relationship.

26

Empathic Joining

A technique for promoting acceptance in integrative behavioural couples therapy, whereby the practitioner encourages a couple to see a broader theme for their destructive interpersonal patterns; they join together to find a solution.

27

Unified Detachment

A technique used in integrative behavioural couples therapy to encourage the two partners to view their problems with less charged emotion and to talk about them in more neutral, descriptive terms.

28

Tolerance Building

A technique used in integrative behaviour couples therapy designed to help individuals accept rather than change undesirable aspects of the partner or the relationship.

29

Integrative behavioural therapists make use of three primary techniques for promoting acceptance. What are they?

1. Empathic joining.
2. Unified detachment.
3. Tolerance building.

30

Emotion Models

An approach to couples therapy that emphasizes the expression of vulnerabilities and core emotions and, in turn, healthy responses to these expressions that bring partners closer together.

31

Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy

An approach focusing on and drawing out the emotional moments in couple's conversations, to create bonds rather than the bargains that typify traditional behavioural approaches.

32

Primary Emotions

Feelings such as abandonment, fear of rejection, shame, and helplessness that can be masked or hidden by self-protective secondary emotions, like anger.

33

Secondary Emotions

Self-protective emotions, such as anger, that deflect attention from primary emotions, such as abandonment, fear of rejection, shame, and helplessness.

34

Emotionally focused couples therapy is an idea that originates in ___ theory.

Attachment.

35

What are the three distinct stages in emotionally focused couples therapy?

1. De-escalation of negative cycles.
2. Shaping new cycles of responsiveness and accessibility.
3. Consolidation and integration.

36

De-Escalation of Negative Cycles

Therapist gets both couples to acknowledge how they contribute to the problems in the relationships, and how they can be understood as emotions and unmet attachment needs.

37

Shaping New Cycles of Responsiveness and Accessibility

Partners learn more positive ways or approaching and responding to each other.

38

Consolidation and Integration

Reflect on the changes they have made, and understand how their relationship deteriorated.

39

Outcome Research

Studies undertaken to determine the effect, or outcome, of a particular form of intervention or therapy.

40

Efficacy Studies

Research designed to determine whether a therapeutic intervention can produce desired results; involves randomly assigning participants to now or more forms of therapy and comparing their outcomes to those of participants who did not receive the treatment.

41

What are three questions asked in relationship outcome research?

1. Does it work?
2. Does it last?
3. Do different methods differ in efficacy?

42

Relationship therapy has these effects on couples:

- Increased satisfaction.
- To a lesser degree, happiness.
- Somewhat lasting effects.

43

Effectiveness Studies

Research designed to determine whether a therapeutic intervention does produce desired results in the real world; differs from efficacy studies by occurring in more typical treatment contexts, thus being less scientifically rigorous.

44

What do effectiveness studies show?

- Many couples drop out.
- Success rates show lower than efficacy studies.
- Treatment for couple problems are not as effective as treatment for individual disorders.

45

Clinical Model

An approach to therapeutic intervention that involves reading relationship distress only after it has developed into a significant problem. See also public health model.

46

Public Health Model

Compared to a clinical or therapeutic model, a perspective on intervention that aims to help prevent or alleviate problems on a larger and more cost-effective social scale.

47

Primary Prevention

An intervention undertaken to reduce or eliminate the likelihood that some adverse or costly event or outcome will occur.

48

Secondary Prevention

An intervention directed at individuals or couples who are at elevated risk or vulnerable in some way to subsequent difficulties.

49

Tertiary Prevention

Also known as therapy, an intervention undertaken to prevent further deterioration for an individual or couple who is already struggling.

50

What are the 3 types of public health programs?

1. Provides couples with information.
2. Gets couples to fill out questionnaires and work on exercises.
3. Teaching couples skills for maintaining the relationship.

51

What can be said about programs designed to teach couples skill?

1. Modest gains in relationship satisfaction.
2. Better observable relationship skills.
3. Unsure whether or not effects are sustained.