Primary Sex Characteristics
Biological differences that males and females are born with.
Example of primary sex characteristics.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Biological differences that develop over time.
Example of secondary sex characteristics.
Depth of voice or development of breasts.
Gender is ___ fluid than sex.
Tertiary Sex Characteristics
Example of tertiary sex characteristics.
Aggression in males.
Someone’s sex gives a suggestion of how he or she might behave. True or false?
Sex is a definitive guide to behaviour. True or false?
Summarizes the results of many studies.
Meta-analysis of studies on gender differences suggest that males and females tend to show ___ distribution on traits.
Men and women are more ___ than they are ___.
Give an example of how males and females show overlapping distribution of traits.
Some males are more aggressive than some females, but not all males are more aggressive than all females.
When the “d” value is 0, it means that…
Males and females are identical.
Even with a large “d” value, the overlap can be ___.
Difference is expressed as a “_” value.
Positive “d” values indicate more ___ engage in the behaviour, and a negative “d” value indicates more ___ engage in the behaviour.
What behaviours are most commonly found in men by a large margin?
- Physical aggression.
- Placing emphasis on partner’s looks.
What behaviours are most commonly found in women by a large margin?
- Expressing emotion.
- Selecting mates based on social class and ambition.
- More likely to be tender-minded.
Tender-mindedness being more prevalent in females can be explained by ___ factors.
What behaviours are most commonly found in men by a moderate margin?
- Verbal aggression.
- Likely to have verbal interruptions.
- Be more assertive.
- Be more interested in and accepting of sex.
What behaviours are most commonly found in women by a moderate margin?
- More skill in decoding nonverbal behaviour.
- Seek more support.
- Have more guilt about sex.
What behaviours are found in both men and women with a small/no margin?
- How aggressive they are when provoked.
- How much they self-disclose and interrupt in conversation.
- Level of openness.
Men and Women are from Earth is a response to…
John Gray’s “Men are from Mars and Women are from Venus.”
For men and women, psychological characteristics are ___, not ___.
What was the only construct found more in men than women?
Having sex outside of a committed partnership.
Men and women did not differ on:
Sexual attitudes, relational interdependence, fear of success, science inclination, Big Five personality traits, empathy, intimacy.
Nature vs. Nurture Debate
Nature is genetic differences, while nurture includes social structures and pressures.
___ develop more cognitively complex representations of relationship events.
Is a more complex view of a relationship always preferable?
___ see interconnections between various relationship events that ___ may not see.
Men consistently report being more ___ in their relationships.
___ are more dyadic in their analysis of a relationship.
___ compartmentalize in their analysis of a relationship.
Compare the relationship awareness between men and women using food.
Women are like spaghetti, and men are like waffles.
Who is able to display support more? Men or women?
Who provides higher quality support, men or women?
Men tend to meet heightened support with…
___ may resent having to provide support.
Both genders seek out ___ for support.
When given a list of essential attributes for a successful long-term relationship, men and women differed how in what they rated as important?
They did not differ.
When listing their own attributes, men and women identify with the same attributes. What is the exception?
Men are 7 times more likely to mention sexual intercourse.
___ possess consistently greater sex drives in every study conducted.
Men possess greater sex drives, and they are more likely to…
- Want it more frequently.
- Have it earlier.
- Have it with more partners.
- Will cheat to get it more often.
Sexual satisfaction is tied to ___ satisfaction more for men than women.
Which gender is more likely to dissolve a relationship?
Compare men and women to weather instruments.
Women are like barometers and men are like thermometers measuring in 5 degree increments.
When do men and women experience distress?
Women experience distress before a relationship ends, but men experience distress after a relationship ends.
How are women affected by breakups?
Large drop in income, but stable life satisfaction after.
How are men affected by breakups?
Stable income, but large drop in life satisfaction other.
___ reenter a new relationship faster.
What percent of Canadian couples are same-sex, up 42.4% from ‘06?
Like males and females, same-sex and different-sex relationships seem to have more ___ than ___.
What are some things that stay the same between homosexual and heterosexual couples?
- Sorts of problems they face.
- Ways they change over time.
Some studies have demonstrated that same-sex couples hold advantages in which areas?
- Handling conflict more effectively.
- Are more egalitarian.
How are same-sex and different-sex relationships different?
- Family and societal approval.
- Coming out and homophobia.
- Social support.
Same-sex couples try to create an ___ in a heteronormative society.
The coming out process may be stressful for homosexual couples because…
It may be met with homophobia.
Why do homosexual couples derive social support from friends and peers?
Their families are often not as accepting of them.
What type of couples have the most sex and what type has the least sex?
Gay people have the most, lesbian have the least.
Relationship stability is highest in what types of couples and lowest in what types?
Why would heterosexual couples be the most stable?
Because of normative pressures, or because of factors like kids.
Disconnect between assigned sex and overall gender identity.
Is surgery necessary to be classified as transgendered?
What are trans-males?
FTM, female to male.
What are trans-females?
MTF, male to female.
Attached to both males and females.
Bisexual couples are stereotyped as…
Promiscuous and incapable of fidelity.
Mark et al. found that more than __% of bisexual couples were in committed relationships, debunking a popular stereotype.
Differences between men is greater than differences between…
Men and women.
Why do we need to look at differences?
Cumulative between the sexes adds up to produce different expectations.
It is important to consider the ___ range and experiences of intimate unions.