Chapter 1.3 Structural Organization of the body Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1.3 Structural Organization of the body Deck (57):

What are the levels of organization in the human body?

1) Atom
2) Molecule
3) Cells
4) Tissue
5) Organ
6) Organ system
7) Organism


The simplest level of organization within the body is

The chemical level, which is composed of atoms and molecules


Atoms are

The smallest units of matter


Two or more atoms combine to form

A molecule


Examples of molecules are

Protein, a water molecule, or a vitamin


Large molecules join in specific ways to form



The basic units of structure and function in organisms are



At the cellular level there are specialized

Structural and functional units called organelles which permit all living cells to share certain common functions


In the tissue level there are

Groups of similar cells with a common function


Tissues are precise

Organizations of similar cells that perform specialized functions


Name the four types of tissues

1) Epithelial tissue
2) Connective tissue
3) Muscle tissue
4) Nervous tissue


Epithelial tissue

Covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities


Connective tissue

Protects, supports, and interconnects body parts and organs


Muscle tissue

Produces movement


Nervous tissue

Conducts impulses for internal communication


At the organ level, different tissue types combine to form what

An organ


Give an example of an organ

Small intestine, brain, lungs, stomach, or heart


Organs contain

Two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific , complex functions


What organ exhibits all four tissue types

The small intestine


The organ system level consists of

Related organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve a common function


Give an example of organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve a common function

Organs in the respiratory system such as the nose, pharynx, and trachea, which all collaborate to clean, warm, humidify, and conduct air from the atmosphere to the gas exchange surfaces in the lungs


Name the highest level of structural organization in the body

Organism level


In an organism

All body systems function interdependently in a single living human being


Give an example of the effect that a gene mutation may have on the body

Cystic fibrosis


When does cystic fibrosis result?

When a defective or abnormal region in a molecule of DNA affects the normal function of cells in certain body organs


Abnormal cellular function causes

A corresponding failure in the functioning of the tissues composed of these abnormal cells, resulting in aberrant activity in the organ housing these tissues


Organ failure has effects on what

On organ system activities


What is the smallest structural unit that exhibits the characteristics of living things, and this is the smallest living portion of the human body

The cell


Name the several properties that are common to all organisms, including humans

1) Organization
2) Metabolism
3) Growth and development
4) Responsiveness
5) Adaptation
6) Regulation
7) Reproduction


Describe organization

All organisms exhibit a complex structure and order. The human body has several increasingly complex levels of organization


Describe metabolism

All organisms carry out various chemical reactions. These chemical reactions include breaking down ingested nutrients into digestible particles , using the cells own energy to perform certain functions, and contracting and relaxing muscles to move the body.


Give an example of metabolic activities

Ingesting nutrients and expelling wastes enable the body to continue acquiring the energy needed for life's activities


Describe growth and development

During their lifetime, organisms assimilate materials from their environment and exhibit increased size (growth) and increased specialization as related to form and function (development). As the human body grows in size, structures such as the brain become more complex and sophisticated


Describe responsiveness

All organisms sense and respond to changes in their internal or external environment


Give an example of responsiveness in organisms

A stimulus to the skin of the hand , such as extremely hot or cold temperatures, causes a human to withdraw the hand from the stimulus, so as to prevent injury or damage


Describe adaptation

Over a period of time, an organism may alter an anatomic structure, physiologic process, or behavioral trait to increase its expected long-term reproductive success, such as a darkening of skin pigmentation in the equatorial region due to an increase in sun exposure


Describe Regulation

Control and regulatory mechanisms within an organism maintain a consistent internal environment, a state called homeostasis


In a constantly changing environment, every organism must be able to maintain what

A "Steady state"


Give an example of regulation for organisms

When the body temperature rises, more blood is circulated near the surfaces of our limbs and digits to facilitate heat loss and return to homeostasis


Describe reproduction

All organisms produce new cells for growth, maintenance, and repair. An organism produces sex cells (called gametes) that, under the right conditions, have the ability to develop into a new living organism


All organisms must exchange what in order to carry out metabolism

Nutrients, gases, and wastes with their environment


Simple organisms exchange substances how

Directly across their surface membranes


What is another name for homeostasis

Internal equilibrium


How does the human body maintain homeostasis

Through the intricate inter workings of all its organ systems


Briefly describe the Integumentary system

Provides protection, regulates body temperature, site of cutaneous receptors, synthesizes vitamin D, and prevents water loss


Hair and skin are examples of

Integumentary System


Briefly describe the skeletal system

Provides support and protection, site of hemopoiesis (blood cell production), stores calcium and phosphorus, provides sites for muscle attachments


Briefly describe the muscular system

Produces body movement, generates heat when muscles contract


Briefly describe the Nervous system

A regulatory system that controls body movement, responds to sensory stimuli, and helps control all other systems of the body. Also responsible for consciousness, intelligence, memory


Briefly describe the Endocrine system

Consists of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones, some of which regulate body and cellular growth, chemical levels in the body, and reproductive functions


Briefly describe the cardiovascular system

Consists of the heart (a pump), blood, and blood vessels; the heart moves blood through blood vessels in order to distribute hormones, nutrients, and gases, and pick up waste products


Briefly describe the Lymphatic system

Transports and filters lymph (interstitial fluid transported through lymph vessels) and initiates an immune response when necessary


Briefly describe the respiratory system

Responsible for exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between blood and the air in the lungs


Briefly describe the digestive system

Mechanically and chemically digests food materials, absorbs nutrients, and expels waste products


Briefly describe the urinary system

Filters the blood and removes waste products from the blood, concentrates waste products in the form of urine, and expels urine from the body


Briefly describe the male reproductive system

Produces male sex cells (sperm) and male hormones (e.g. testosterone), transfers sperm to the female


Briefly describe the female reproductive system

Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and female hormones (e.g. estrogen and progesterone), receives sperm from male, site of fertilization of oocyte, site of growth and development of embryo and fetus